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Chapter 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 3 PSYB30 Chapter 3 Personality Traits: Practical Matters What’s Missing From the Five Factors?  Some critics claimed that the five factors are complete and can account for even the unusual traits  Some think more factors are necessary Is Intelligence a Personality Trait?  Cognitive ability is not generally considered a personality trait  Raymond Cattel identified ability traits: o Memory, mathematical ability, intelligence  Some think that intelligence fall under the conscientiousness category of the Big Five  Words related to intelligence o Hardworking, smart, knowledgeable o ^Conscientiousness factor and are not used to measure intelligence  There is evidence that there are individual differences in how people perceive and process information about the social world (called emotional intelligence by some psychologists)  The idea of intelligence as an ability in the form of IQ is controversial and is quite a different concept than traits Is Religiosity a Personality Trait?  Religion and religious adjectives have not been looked at much by psychology  Spirituality is a core part of a who a person is to many people  Some psychologist look at religiosity as a secondary trait of the Big Five  Spiritual transcendence: ability of individuals to ‘stand outside of their immediate sense of time and place to view life from a larger, more objective perspective  Piedmont and his colleagues designed the Spiritual Transcendence Scale (STS) after meeting with experts of different faiths o 3 facets to the scale:  Prayer Fulfillment: feelings of joy and contentedness from connection with transcendent  Universality: seeing humanity as a single interrelated whole such that harming one harms all  Connectedness: feeling belongingness to and social responsibility and gratitude fro, others across generations and across social groups  Piedmont found that scores on each of the three transcendence scales were only slightly related to scores on the five factors o Finding suggested that transcendence is a dimension of personality separate from the five factors of personality Is Sexuality a Personality Trait?  Words that described aspects of sexuality or that were applicable to one gender or the other were purposely excluded from early lexical studies  Buss and colleagues identified all adjectives referring to sexuality and cam e up with the Sexy Seven  Sexy Seven o Sexual attractiveness: sexy, stunning, attractive o Relationship exclusivity: faithful, monogamous, not promiscuous o Gender orientation: feminine, womanly, manly, masculine o Sexual restraint: virginal, celibate, chaste o Erotophilic disposition: obscene, vulgar, lewd Chapter 3 PSYB30 o Emotional investment: loving, romantic, compassionate o Sexual orientation  Buss and Schmitt discovered that sexuality factors overlap 80% of the five factors o Not really separate factors  Since sexuality can be accounted for by a combination of factors and facets of the five factors, sexuality is not a separate personality trait o Just another way to express the five factors Indigenous Personality: Unique Personality Traits?  Possible that five factors miss personality traits unique to different cultures since five factors were made looking at American culture  Philotimo: An indigenous Greek trait term describing the qualities of being polite, generous, responsible, respectful and having a strong sense of humor  Filial piety: An indigenous Chinese trait term describing a person who cares for the mental and physical well – being of one’s elderly parents, continuing the family line and bringing honor to one’s family and ancestors  Amae: characterizes relationships between people of lower and higher status (bosses and workers, parents and children) o Japanese culture  Indigenous personality traits lie beyond the five factors The Five Factors in Other Cultures  Different approaches to identify and correlate traits important in other cultures  Questionnaire measures the five factor model reliably replicate across many cultures and languages o Applies very well among many countries and cultures o Words are translated and then carefully back – translated to ensure items are comparable o Five-factor score correlate impressively o FFM dimensions are universally applicable  Adjectival measures of the Big Five reveal variations in Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness but not Openness in many different cultures o Closer the culture is to a Northern European culture, the closer the results are to Anglo- based Big Five  Openness varies across cultures o Openness factor does not consistently appear in other languages  This factor is probably define differently in ways unique to a specific culture o Imagination, emotionality, psychological liberalism, adventurousness may tap in to Western culture’s emphasis on intellectual freedom, emotional expressiveness and individual uniqueness o What excites people may vary by culture (some it’s art, others its something else)  In some cultures, more than five factors are needed to fully describe personality o Some cultures exhibit culture-specific forms of Extraversion or Agreeableness, or aspects of social evaluation that are particular to that culture o Interpersonal relations are important, so natural languages develop many terms for getting along with others  We need more research on indigenous personality to truly see which aspects of personality are universal and which are unique to a culture o Indigenous traits: traits originating in other language and which are unique to a culture o Some feel that indigenous traits overlap the Big Five and others say that questionnaires and adjectival measures miss indigenous terms o Lexical approach is usually preferred in different cultures Chapter 3 PSYB30 Personality Traits Cross-Culturally: Personality Traits in China  China’s results of the NEO-PI-R were very similar to the American results o However the Action facet of Openness did not lead on any of the factors  Problem with the scale and a genuine difference among the Chinese on this dimensions  It would make sense to look at traits important in Chinese culture and see how these attributes apply to Chinese personality  Cheung came up with Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) and found 10 trait clusters unique to the Chinese personality and not covered by Western personality o Harmony: tolerance, contentment o Ren Qing: traditional relationship orientation emphasizing give and take and connectedness o Modernization: vs. Traditionalism o Thrift: extravagance o Ah – Q mentality: defensiveness o Graciousness: courtesy, kindness, patience o Veraciousness-slickness: trustworthiness o Face: Reputation, social approval o Family Orientation o Somatization: expression of distress via physical symptoms  Four factors o Dependability: responsibility, practical-mindedness, graciousness o Chinese Tradition: Harmony, Ren Qing, Face o Social Potency: leadership, adventurousness o Individualism: self – orientation, logical, Ah –Q mentality Research Methods Illustrated: Triangulation and Types of Data  Triangulation: process of using multiple methods within a single program of research (different methods to solve or find one solution/findings)  S-data: personality tests or other self report questionnaires; self-report data o Objective personality tests, interviews, narratives, life stories survey research  T data: placing a person in a controlled situation that test them to see how they respond; Test data o Intelligence tests, task persistence, reaction times  O data: watching people in the lab or in their daily lives; observation data o Also collected from coding behavior from photos or v
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