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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 psyb30.docx

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Marc A Fournier

Chapter 7 Motives and Goals What do we want in lifeMotivationPeople have inside of them wants desires aims and intentionsPeople act upon these wants producing behaviorThe root word of motivation refers to movementWe have the need to pursue necessary goalsCharacteristic adaptations are more specific and particular aspects of psychological individuality that are contextualized in time place or social roleCharacteristic adaptations make up level 2 of personalityMotives and goals are one class of characteristic adaptations they are those aspects of personality that speak directly to that people want things and they act upon those wantsThe Psychoanalytic View th The most influential psychologist on the 20 century was Sigmund FreudHe was the prime inventor of psychoanalysisthe heart of the psychoanalytic view of personality is Freuds theory of motivationThere are four basic parts to the theory 1 Determinism 2 Drive 3 Conflict 4 The unconscious1Forces that we have little control determine all human behavior and experienceHe said that somebody else is making the moves 2and that these powerful forces exists within us they can be traced back to drives and instincts drives for sexuality and aggressionAccording to Freud people want sexual satisfaction and suitable outlets for our aggression 3The forces that determine all our behavior and experience are in conflict with one another which causes us anxiety we want to much of what we cant have4 we dont even know what those forces that determine our behavior and anxiety are there outside of our consciousness they are unconscious to usWe have no control over our livesFor Freud sexuality and aggression are the wellsprings of human motivationHe said that there are 2 sets of instincts or drives o Sexuality and all other life instincts EROS o Aggression and all other death instincts THANATOSThe Unconscious by FreudIts those scary things are stored away by every decent manFundamental proposition to the psychoanalytic view is that much of what we do and feel is outside our every conscious awarenessFreuds earliest clinical cases convinced him that the neurotic symptoms from which his patients suffered from came from personal conflicts and fantasies which were often sexual and aggressive which have been actively pushed from consciousnessConscious experience is the tip of the ice berg of human lifeHypnotism was used to gain access to the unconscious mind and Jean Charcot Freuds teacher was behind itIn his topographical model of human functioning Freud distinguished between conscious unconscious and preconsciousPreconscious it has material that the person isnt currently aware but could easily enter the awareness if the person retrieves the material its the ordinary memoryThe unconscious has elements that have been actively repressed its a repository for ideas images urges and feelings that are associated with conflict pain fear and guiltRepressed unconscious material is expressed in disguised or symbolic formin dreams fantasies workart or playRepression and RepressorsResearch in cognitive science has shown that a great deal of everyday mental life is outside of conscious awarenessPeople perceive learn and remember many things without consciously aware of doing soThese kinds of nonconscious cognitive operations are manifestations of implicit information procession in human beingsMuch of what we feel and think about people and social situations are driven by nonconscious automatic mental processesDijsterhuis concludes that unconscious thought is often better able than consciousness to process large amounts of information in an efficient and effective mannerIn the psychoanalytic view repression is an inescapable fact of daily life its the function to reject and keep something out of consciousnesssomething that can harmyouRepressors are people who experience little anxiety on a conscious level and who adopt a highly defensive approach to lifePenelope Davis conducted many studies examining how repressors recall emotional experience in their lives females collegeThe results indicated that repressors tended to report fewer positive memories and a general failure to retrieve emotional memories of many kindsThey recalled fewer childhood experiences in which they felt happy sad angry fearful guilty and selfconscious but they had more experiences of other people feeling thisThese experiences directly threaten the self with a negative evaluationRepress when the self is judged in a negative way
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