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PSYB30H3 (478)
Chapter 5

chapter 5 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

Chapter 5 In the Brain and in Behaviour E: Extraversion Extraversion is the broadest dimension Its a bipolar continuum that runs from the high end ( extremely high extraversion) to the low end (extremely low introversion) Extraversion is a family (domain) of smaller traits (sociability, warmth, excitement seeking) Social Behaviour and Cognitive Performance Carl Jung, a psychologist speculated that extraverts use psychological energy outward to the social world He also said that introverts use their psychological energy inward toward private thought and fantasy Hans Eysenck made the same distinction o He claimed that extraverts are more outgoing but also a bit heedless and impulsive o He claimed that introverts are more quiet and withdrawn but also a bit contemplative and less likely to take bad risks o Therefore, extraverts are more socially dominant and have more friends than introverts, but introverts have deeper friendship with a few friends Laboratory research shows that there is a relation between E and various cognitive performance o Extroverts perform better on tasks that require divided attention (geared to respond) o Introverts perform better on takes that require careful attention to details (geared to inspect) There is also a difference in learning styles o Extroverts prefer speed over accuracy o Introverts prefer accuracy over speed www.notesolution.comFeeling good Extroverts report to have greater levels of positive effect in daily life than do introverts Why? o One explanation is that extroverts may be less responsive to punishment than introverts o Introverts dwell more on the negative and punitive features of certain social situations whereas extroverts face punishment and frustration o A study by Pearce-McCall and Newman show that in an experiment, 50 introverts and 50 extroverts are to face a problem-solving task. Before the task they are exposed to one of two pre-treatment conditions, randomly: reward condition, punishment condition. After the pre-treatment the students bet on how they will perform on subsequent problem solving tasks The study found that introverts and extraverts bet the same amount of money after receiving a reward but following a punishment, extraverts show higher levels of betting and introverts show lower levels o In another study, Patterson, Kosson, and Newman found that following punishment, extroverts dont stop and reflect, they push ahead for the next trial, impulsively seeking rewards Compared to introverts, extroverts have better ability to regulate their moods o Mood regulation is the ability to maintain a positive ratio of good to bad feelings in life o In a study, after showing students a movie which started off as humorous and followed by a tragic ending, extroverts were able to maintain the positive mood than introverts were Extroverts are more likely to recall positive mood states o Ina study, 56 students were asked to record their mood during the morning, afternoon, and evening for a period of 90 days. Later when students were asked to restate their overall mood state over the 90 day period, extroverts recalled more positive states even higher than what they had reported www.notesolution.com
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