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Chapter 7

Notes pertaining to chapter 7 of the textbook titled "Motives and Goals"

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Marc A Fournier

B30: Personality Chapter 7: Motives and Goals ~ What Do We Want In Life? Motivation- used to denote the forces and factors, usually viewed as residing within the person, that energize and direct behaviour. Common motivational ideas in personality psychology include wants, desires, needs, goals, striving, projects and tasks THE PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEW Sigmund Freud th Most influential psychologist of the 20 century Prime inventor of psychoanalysis- aspect of psychology that focuses on the unconscious determinants of behavior, intrapsychic conflict, and instinctual drives concerning sexuality and aggression. It also denotes the process of engaging in psychotherapy from a psychoanalytic standpoint. At the heart of the psychoanalytic view of personality is Freuds theory of motivation which can be boiled down to four basic propositions: (1) determinism (2) drive (3) conflict (4) unconscious first, forces over which we have little control determine all human behaviour and experience; Freud insisted that we are like the pawns on a chess game, somebody else is making the moves second, these powerful forces exist within us, and can typically be traced back to primitive drives or instincts most importantly our drives for sexuality and aggression third, the forces that determine all our behaviour and experience are in perpetual conflict with one another, which causes us anxiety (id-ego-superego); conflict between our primitive urges and societal constraints as well as conflicts deep within ourselves we want too much that we can never have, thus we are destined to be miserable fourth, the most important determinants of and conflicts in our lives are outsides of our consciousness~ they are unconscious to us and we are unconscious to them; we have virtually no control of our lives, so we are conflicted and anxious and dont know why. 1 www.notesolution.com for Freud, sexuality and aggression provide the motive force, drive and thrust for all of our behaviour he eventually settled on the idea that there exist two sets of instincts or drives: (1) sexuality and all other life instincts- serving sexual reproduction and survival (Eros) (2) aggression and all other death instincts- assumed to motivate the person toward behaviour and experience promoting ones own death and destruction or aggression towards others. (Thanatos) THE UNCONSCIOUS unconscious- the state of being outside of awareness. It is a shadowy realm of the mind wherein resides repressed thoughts, feelings, memories, conflicts and the life we do not and typically cannot know what the real reasons are for what we do because the prime determinants of human behaviour are split off from what we typically can grasp in conscious everyday experience in his topographical model of functioning, Freud distinguished among conscious, preconscious and unconscious regions of the mind o the conscious corresponds to everyday awareness; the preconscious contains the contents ordinary memory to which awareness may be directed at any time; and the unconscious contains wishes, feelings, memories and so on that have been repressed because they threaten the well being of the conscious self REPRESSION AND REPRESSORS research in cognitive science has shown conclusively that a great deal of everyday mental life is outside of conscious awareness people perceive, learn, and remember many things without being consciously aware of doing so these kinds of nonconscious cognitive operations are manifestations of implicit information processing in human beings recent theory and research further suggests that unconscious thinking may sometimes be superior to conscious thought in reaching correct solutions to complex problems Freud was mainly concerned with thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories that may be stored away in an inaccessible, unconscious realm because they threaten the persons well being repression- Freuds concept for the process of casting thoughts, memories, feelings, and conflicts out of consciousness, rendering them unremembered repressors- individuals who show low levels of anxiety but high levels of defensiveness. Research suggests that repressors have less access than do other people to negative emotional memories about the self. 2 www.notesolution.com
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