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PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Notes

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Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 14 - Gender identity- what we feel we are o Sexual orientation- who we are attracted to o Gender identity disorder (GID) transexualism- people who dont feel like they belong in the gender that they were born as o They may try to pass as someone from the opposite sex and by want to have their body surgically altered to bring them in line with their gender identity o When GID begins in childhood, it is associated with cross- gender behaviours such as dressing in opposite- sex clothes, preferring opposite sex playmates and engaging in play that would usually be considered typical of opposite sex o Associated with a developmental lag in achieving a sense of gender constancy or stability o Usually recognized by a parent when child is 2-4 years old o More frequent in boys than in girls- cross- gender behaviour is less tolerated when exhibited by boys and a higher threshold has to be met in order for a girl to be referred o Factors associated with decision to seek clinical assessment: 1) belief that behaviour was no longer a phase that child will grow out of, 2) threshold violation- wanting to cross dress in nursery school as well, 3) belief that the chikld was experiencing intense distress about being a boy or girl, 4) concerns about potential or actual rejection by peers o Most children with GID do not grow up to be disordered in adulthood even without professional intervention- but many exhibit homosexual orientation o PEOPLE WITH SCHIZO- rarely have GID, HERMAPHRODITES- have genitals of both sexes, AND PEOPLE WITH TRANSVESTIC FETHISISM- although they dress in clothing of opposite sex, they dont necessarily want to Be that gender o A mal with GID has sexual interest with men because he sees himself as a woman o They often get discriminated at work and stuff because they cross dress o People with GID often experience anxiety and depression o GID in childhood is linked with separation anxiety disorder o prevalence is low- 130 000 in men and 1 100000-150, 000 Etiology o children who experience a sense of innapropriateness in culturally prescribed gender role of their sex but doesnt experience discomfort swith their biological sex should not be considered with GID o GID shouldnt be considered as a mental disorder- may serve as a stigmatizing the children with GID go on to o Gender identity disorder may be influenced by hormones unable to shape penis and scrotum in fetal development, and they were raised as a girl, but with puberty the male hormones started coming out and they began to develop penis and got GID o Sex hormones taken by the mother during pregnancy can make the kids behave like members of opposite sex and have anatomical abnormalities o Many mother encourage cross-dressing at a young age and this its cute and take pictures, which encourages the child to develop GID o Attractive boys often have GID and ugly girls have GID o Boys who are distant from their father and girls who have undergone physical or sexual abuse often get GID o There is a differentce between enjoying the activities more typical to opposite sex and actually believing www.notesolution.com that one is of opposite sex o Our society has low tolerance for boys who engage in activities that are typical of girls, whereas girls can play games and dress in a manner more typical to boys and still be okay Therapies o Body alterations Undergo 6 to 12 months of psychotherapy- foceses on anxiety, depression and options available for altering their body Some people with GID may just chose to have cosmetic surgery- remove facial hair, enlarge breasts, other take hormones that promote breast growth and soften skin SEX-REASSIGNMENT SURGERY- existing genitalia are altered to make them more like those of the opposite sex Surgery is more frequently done by men- but it has found no advantage to individual in terms of social rehabilitation, but may for female- to male transsexuals Good surgery depended on the persons emotional stability, successful adaptation in new role for t least one year before surgery, adequeate understanding of actual minitations and consequences of surgery and psychotherapy in context of established gender identity program Sexual responsiveness and sexual satisfaction increase dramatically in both male- female and female- male transsexuals Transsexuals have to often face challenges that few others will face in their lives and this adjustment will be made without the social support from families and friends People who focuse on gender identity vs. biological makeup say it is horrible trick that nature has played on them- but these people seldom find that surgery makes an improvement in their lives o Alterations of gender identity Some people can go under behaviour therapy and teach them how to talk to the opposite sex and watch videos of each sex and make them like the opposite sex and make fantasies, and get sexual arousal from opposite sex through movies, and use aversion therapy to reduce attractiveness of same sex- this really helps sometimes- makes them feel like the proper sex and lasted long - Paraphilias o Fetishism Involves a reliance on an inanimate object for sexual arousal- almost always male, has recurrent and intense sexual urges toward nonliving objects called fetishes and presence of fetish is strongly preferred or even necessary for sexual arousal to occur Feet, shoes, sheer stockings, rubber products such as raincoats, gloves, toilet articles, fur garments, and especially underpants are common sources of arousal for fetishists- some carry on their fetishism bey secretly fondling, kissing, smelling, sucking, placing in their rectum or mrerely gazing at the adored object as they masturbate- others need the partner to don the fetish as a stimulant for intercourse Fetishists sometimes become interested in acquiring a collection of the desired objects and they may commit burglary week after week to add to their hoard Attraction felt by fetishist toward obkect has compulsive quality- experienced as involuntary and irresistible- degree of the erotic focalization- exclusive and very special status the object occupies as a sexual stimulant that distinguishes them from ordinary attraction to an object- arousal is www.notesolution.com
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