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Chapter 2

PSYB32 Lecture 2_Chapter2.docx

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Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 Lecture 2 Chapter 2 Current Paradigms and the Role of Cultural Factors The Role of Paradigms - Paradigm: conceptual framework or approach within which the scientist works o set of basic assumptions that outline the particular universe of scientific inquiry o specify what problems scientists will investigate and how they will go about it o injects inevitable biases Biological Paradigm - biological paradigm of abnormal behaviour is a continuation of the somatogenic hypothesis o holds that mental disorders are cause by aberrant biological processes  also known as the MEDICAL MODEL or DISEASE MODEL - was the dominant paradigm in Canada and elsewhere from the 1800s -> mid-20 centuryth  Behaviour genetics - The study of individual differences in behaviour that are attributable in part to differences in genetic makeup - Genotype: unobservable genetic constitution o NOT static - Phenotype: totality of his/her observable, behavioural characteristics o Changes over time o Product of interaction between genotype and environment - Only the genotypes for disorders can be inherited, a PREDISPOSITION; not the disorder itself - Family method: used to study a genetic predisposition among members of a family because the avg number of genes shared by 2 blood relatives is known - Starting point in these investigations is the collection of a sample of individuals who bear the diagnosis in question  INDEX CASES or PROBANDS - Twin method: both monozygotic (MZ) twins and dizygotic (DZ) twins are compared o Concordance: when twins have similar diagnosis o When MZ concordance rate is higher than in DZ rate, characteristic = heritable - Adoptees method: study of children with abnormal disorders who were adopted and reared apart from their parents  Neuroscience and Biochem in the Nervous System - Neurotransmitters: chemical substances that allow a nerve impulse to cross the synapse - Some of what remains in the synapse is broken down by enzymes and some is pumped back into the presynaptic cell through reuptake - Norepinephrine, NT of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, is involved in making states of high arousal and involved w/ anxiety disorders - Serotonin involved w/ depression; dopamine in schizophrenia - GABA: inhibits some nerve impulses, involved in anxiety disorders  Structure and Function of the Human Brain - Left hemisphere: controls right side of body; responsible for speech and analytical thinking in right-handed people - Right hemisphere: spatial relations and patterns and is involved in emotion and intuition  Biological Approaches to Treatment - Important implication of the biological paradigm is that prevention or treatment of mental disorders should be possible by altering bodily functioning Psychoanalytic Paradigm - Is an insight therapy - Attempts to removes earlier repression and help the client face the childhood conflict, gain insight and resolve it as an adult  Defence Mechanisms - A strategy, unconsciously used, to protect the ego from anxiety o Repression: most important; pushes unacceptable impulses and thoughts into the unconscious o Denial: entails disavowing a traumatic experience and pushing it to
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