- In early versions of the DSM, somatoform and dissociative were put under the anxiety
- Anxiety is not always observable in these 2 disorders
- Somatoform Disorders are when the individual complains of bodily symptoms that
suggest a physical dysfunction, but there is no physiological evidence behind this.
- Dissociative Disorder is when the individual experiences a disruption in consciousness,
memory, identity etc.
- Onset of both disorders is related to stressful event, and they can sometimes co-occur
- Psychological problems take physical form
- Thought to be linked to psychological factors (anxiety)
- pain that causes significant impairment and stress, may be sever and chronic
- may have relation to some conflict or stress, or attempt by patient to get attention
- diagnosis is difficult, as pain is a feeling, and there is no way if detecting the pain felt is
real or not.
- Patients with physically based pains, unlike with the disorder, can localize, give more
detail and link the pain to increases and decreases.
Body Dismorphic Disorder
- person is preoccupied with self-image and feels there is some defect in them, Ex: a
wrinkle, excess hair or shape of nose.
- Women: skin, hips, breasts, legs
- Men: height, penis length, too much body hair
- Occurs mostly among women in late adolescence, comorbid with depression and social
- People argue this might not be a disorder itself but a symptom of many disorders
- individuals are preoccupied with the fear that they are ill, such as deadly disease
- over 60% of diagnosed cases still had the disorder during follow-up
- frequent consumers of medical goods and prolly have anxiety disorders
- patients over react to bodily sensations such as irregular heartbeat, sore spot, coughing
etc. they can make catastrophic interpretations over small things
- evident in 5% of general population, higher in women than men.
- Health Anxiety is a condition in which you have anxiety over your health, and can lead to
misinterpretations of body signs as being ill. This includes hypochondriasis And illness
phobia, which is a fear of becoming sick.
- The IAS is an illness anxiety scale which consists of 4 factors
- In this disorder, physiologically normal ppl experience cognitive and motor symptoms
such as paralysis, loss of vision etc. although the body and nervous system seems to be
- People may experience seizures, coordination disturbances, pricking or tingling, and a
loss or impairment of sensations, called anesthesias
- Aphonia, loss of speech, and Anosma, loss of smell, are other types of conversion
- These symptoms appear suddenly in stressful situations, maybe to avoid some activity or
to receive attention.
- Freud thought repressed instinct was diverted to blocking these functions. Ex: loss of
eyesight in soldiers that didnt want to fight
- Hysteria was originally used to describe conversion disorders, Hippocrates thought it was
a disorder pertaining to women only, where the uterus would wander through the body.
Longing production of child.
- Prevalence is 1% in population, and more in women than men. An episode of this
disorder can end abruptly then resurface another time with added or different symptoms
- Frequently comorbid with other Axis I disorders.
Malingering and Factitious Disorder
- individual fakes a conversion disorder in order to escape a responsibility, such as work,
or to get money on insurance. The difference between malingering and conversion
disorder, is that malingering is totally under the persons control
- La belle Indifference