Textbook Notes (363,078)
Canada (158,177)
Psychology (9,565)
PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 covered in week 4 of FALL 2010 semester

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

PSYB32 CHAPTER 5: RESEARCH METHODS IN THE STUDY OF ABNORMAL BEHAV. SEPT. 27 . 2010 -SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC METHODS: science = pursuit of systematized knowledge through observation; always imp for scientific obs and explanations to be testable and reliable -Testability and Replicability: a scientific approach requires 1 that propositions and ideas be stated in a clear and precise way; statements, theories, and assertions, regardless of how plausible they may seem, must be testable in the public arena and subject to disproof -closely related to testability is the requirement that each observation that contributes to a scientific body of knowledge be replicable or reliable; we is observed must be replicable; that is, it must occur under prescribed circumstances not once, but repeatedly -if the event cannot be reproduced, scientists become wary of the legitimacy of the original observation -The Role of Theory: -theory = a formally stated and coherent set of propositions that purport to explain a range of phenomena, order them in a logical way, and suggest what additional information might be gleaned under certain conditions; a theory is a set of propositions meant to explain a class of phenomena -primary goal of science is to advance theories to account for data, often by proposing cause-effect relationships; a theory permits the generation of hypotheses to be tested in research -hypothesis = the specific prediction about the outcome of an experiment; it is based on the assumption that the theory in question is accurate; hypotheses are expectations about what should occur if a theory is true -the generation of a theory is perhaps the most challenging part of the scientific enterprise; theories are constructions put together by scientists; in formulating a theory, scientists must often make use of theoretical concepts, unobservable states or processes that are inferred from observable data -a theoretical concept, such as acquired fear, is useful in accounting for the fact that some earlier experience can have an effect on current behave -theoretical concepts can be linked to several different measurements, each of which taps a different facet of the concept -theoretical concepts are better defined by sets of operations that by a single operation -THE RESEARCH METHODS OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY: all empirical research entails the collection of observable data; there are many research methods in the study of abnormal behav; the methods vary in the degree to which they permit the collection of adequate descriptive data and the extent to which they allow researchers to infer causal relationships www.notesolution.com-Case Study: the collection of historical or biographical information on a single individual, often including experiences in therapy -a comprehensive case study would cover family history and background, medical history, educational background, jobs held, marital history, and details concerning development, adjustment, personality, life course, and current situation -case studies from practicing clinicians may lack the degree of control and objectivity of research using other methods, but these descriptive accounts have played an important role in the study of abnormal behave. -case studies have been used to: 1. provide a detailed description of a rare or unusual phenomenon and of important, often novel, methods or procedures of interviewing, diagnosis, and treatment 2. disconfirm allegedly universal aspects of a particular theoretical proposition 3. generate hypotheses that can be tested through controlled research -Providing Detailed Descriptions: because it deals with a single individual, the case study can include much more detail than is typically included with other research methods -Eve White assumed at various times 3 very distinct personalities; she subsequently claimed to have had 21 separate personalities -the constant comparative method, which consists of the identification of relevant units of information (unitizing), placing the units into categories that emerge from the data (categorizing), and providing organizational themes for the information (identifying themes) -The Case Study as Evidence: case histories are especially useful when they negate (prove something is false) an assumed universal relationship or law -the case study fares less well as evidence in support of a particular theory or proposition -case studies do not provide the means for ruling out alternative hypotheses -Generating Hypotheses: through exposure to the life histories of a great number of patients, clinicians gain experience in understanding and interpreting them; eventually they may notice similarities of circumstances and outcomes and formulate important hypotheses that could not have been uncovered in a more controlled investigation -to sum up, the case study is an excellent way of examining the behav of a single individual in great detail and of generating hypotheses that can later be evaluated by controlled research -it is useful in clinical settings, where the focus is on just 1 person; but when general, universal laws are sought to explain phenomena, the case study is of limited use www.notesolution.com
More Less

Related notes for PSYB32H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.