Textbook Notes (363,177)
Canada (158,245)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 3: Classification and Diagnosis Diagnostic system widely employed by mental health professions: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM) [BRIEF HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATION] Early Efforts of Classification: o During 1800 and early 1900 there was great inconsistency in classification of abnormal behaviour o By end of 1900 the diversity of classification recognized as serious problem that impeded communication among people in the field and several attempts were made to produce a system of classification that would be widely adopted Development of the WHO and DSM systems: o 1939: World Health Organization(WHO) added mental disorders to the International List of Causes of Death o 1948: list expanded to become International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death (ICD): list of all diseases including classification of abnormal behaviour o 1952: American Psychiatric Association published its own Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) o WHO classification simply a listing of diagnostic categories; actual behaviour or symptoms that were the bases of diagnoses were not specified o DSM-II and the British Glossary of Mental Disorders provided some of the crucial info but did not specify the same symptoms for a given disorder o DSM-IV used throughout USA and Canada and accepted around much of the world [Diagnostic System of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR)] Definition of mental disorder: o A clinically significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and that is associated with present distress (painful symptom) or disability (impairment in one or more important areas of functioning) or with a significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability or an important loss of freedom o Syndrome or pattern must not be an expectable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event (death of a loved one); it must be a manifestation of a behavioural, psychological or biological dysfunction in the individual Five Dimensions of Classification: o Multiaxial Classification (MAC): each individual is rated on five separate dimensions or axes Axis I: all diagnostic categories except personality disorder and mental retardation Axis II: Personality disorders and mental retardation Axis III: general medical conditions Axis IV: psychosocial and environmental problems www.notesolution.com
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