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Chapter 4

Chapter 4.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Chandan Narayan

Chapter 4 – Infancy: Sensation, Perception, and Learning - neonates: a newborn baby - newborns are highly competent organism with surprisingly well-developed reflexes and sensory responses - well equipped to adapting to new environments from very first moments of birth - able to respond in an organized, meaningful way earlier than assumed - some of first behaviours to appear are reflexes o human beings involuntary responses to external situations o permanent reflexes  biceps reflex, eye blinking, patellar tendon reflex, withdrawal reflex, etc o temporary reflexes palmar grasp, babinski reflex, sucking response, etc o rooting and sucking reflexes help newborn locate and obtain food and blinking helps shield eyes from excessively strong light - infants expose in utero (e.g. cocaine, teratogens, etc) can have neurological deficits that can be assessed by observing infants’ response to different stimulation - exposure to PCB decreases reflexes, delayed motor development, lower IQ, and decreased reading ability - abnormalities in reflexes during first few days are useful indicators for identifying visual and hearing problems - can help predict abnormal functions that do not appear until months or years later - reflexes that are weak, absent or unusually strong can be a sign of brain damage -  some reflexes disappear due to increased coritcol contrneurological problems - infant state: recurring pattern of arousal in newborn, ranging from alert, vigorous 沛 , wakeful activity, to quite, regular sleep - 6 states: regular sleep, irregular sleep, drowsiness , alert inactivity, waking activity and crying - human behaviour is organized and predictable. Infant states don't occur in a random, haphazard 偶然的 manner. - Human beings are not passive creatures that merely react to the environment. Internal forces regulate much of our behaviour and account for many changes in activity levels - arousal patterns are formed well before birth o e.g. premature babies exhibit regular changes in state as they grew older - two fundamental infant states waking and sleeping o each consist of variationsquiet, active, distressed, etc Sleep - on average, sleeps 70% of time in a series of long and short naps - th  by 4theek periods of sleep less, but longer in length - by 8 week  sleep more during night and less during day - become less fussy as they gain better control over states of arousal st - by 1 year  sleep through night - sleeping conditions vary from nation to nation and within each nation o many cultures encourage co-sleeping (infant and parent sleep in same bed) - sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): sudden and unexpected death of healthy infant under 1 years of age – death remains unexplained after possible explanations have been ruled out o Apnea 窒息 is possibilityinterruption of breathing o Prone 俯卧 sleeping o parental smoking - REM and non-REM sleep: rapid-eye-movement sleep is rapid, jerky movements of eyes (associated with dreaming) o paradoxical sleep o fluctuating heart rate and blood pressure o infants spend 50% of sleep in REM o adults spend 20% of sleep in REM - autostimulation theory: theory that during REM sleep, infant’s brain stimulates itself and in turn, stimulates early development of CNS o account for high level of REM sleep in newborns o reduction in REM sleep due to processing external stimulation o As the infant develops and becomes more alert and capable of processing external stimulation, this type of built-in stimulation may become less necessary. Crying - three different patterns of crying o  basic linked to hunger and other factors; starts low intensity gradually getting louder and more rhythmic (cry-rest-inhale-rest) o angry  similar to basic, but crying, resting and inhaling vary in length, and crying segments are longer; causes include removal of pacifier or toy o pain  sudden in onset; loud from start; long cry-long silence; holding of breath and gasping inhalations. Causes include discomfort from soiled diaper, a pin pick, or stomach pain. - who is able to distinguish between crymother > father > nonparents - Early months of life, crying is related to the infant's physiology. By 3 or 4 months, however, crying is less associated with physiological distress and increasingly related to psychological needs. - responding to crying can increase or decrease amount of crying - current research suggests that frequent delays in responding to crying seemed to cause a decrease in the number of crying bouts - crying patterns can help alert for possible abnormalities o Colic: a prolonged period of unexplained crying in an infant. o premature infants produce higher pitched cries and different facial expressions o high pitched cries can result in SIDS - how infants soothe themselves o sucking o sucking on certain substances calms infants more effectively (sweet taste) - how parents sooth their babies o held to shoulder, moved horizontally, moved to sitting position, held in embrace, rocking, etc o Swaddling 襁褓  encase infant in cradleboard - brazelton neonatal assessment scale: scale used to measure infant’s sensory and perceptual capabilities, motor development, range of states, and ability to regulate these states o also indicates whether brain and CNS are properly regulating o differentiate infants who are at risk for developmental problems and aid in diagnosing neurological impairment. o May predict later parent-infant interaction. o includes  capacity of habituation  orientation to sights and sounds focus and track stimuli  motor development
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