Textbook Notes (363,149)
Canada (158,223)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 10

chapter 10

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Konstantine Zakzanis

Chapter 10: Mood Disorders: involve disabling disturbances in emotion and from the sadness of depression to the elation and irritability of mania Often associated with other psychological problems such as panic attacks, substance abuse, sexual dysfunction and personality disorders Depression: SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Depression is an emotional state marked by great sadness and feelings of worthlessness and guilt; withdrawal from others and loss of sleep, appetite, sexual desire and interest and pleasure in usual activities Patients cant concentrate and cant take in what they read or what ppl say to them They speak slowly after long pauses using few words and a low monotonous voice Make complaints of somatic symptoms with no apparent physical basis Symptoms and signs vary somewhat across the lifespan People tend to emphasize somatic symptoms rather than emotional ones when they are being evaluated in medical setting Psychologizers: people who emphasize the psychological aspects of depression Mania: SIGNS AND SYMTPOMS Emotional state or mood of intense but unfounded elation accompanied by irritability, hyperactivity, talkativeness, flight of ideas, distractibility and impractical, grandiose plans FORMAL DIANOSTIC LISTING OF MOOD DISORDERS Major depressive disorders (MDD): diagnosis requires presence of 5 of the following symptoms for at least two weeks; either depressed mood or loss of interest and pleasure must be one of the 5 symptoms o Sad, depressed mood, most of the day everyday o Loss of interest and pleasure in usual activities o Difficulties in sleeping (sleeping too much or too little) o Shift in activity level, becoming either lethargic (psychomotor retardation) or agitated o Poor appetite and weight loss or increased in appetite and weight gain o Loss of energy, great fatigue o Negative self-concept, self-approach and self-blame, feelings of worthlessness and guilt o Complaints or evidence of difficulty in concentrating, such as slowed thinking and indecisiveness o Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide Depression is continuous vs. Depression reflects taxonomic, categorical structure Lifetime prevalence rates range from 5.2% to 17.1%; Current and lifetime prevalence rates are higher among younger people than older people www.notesolution.com MDD two times more common in women than men; gender diff. Does not appear in preadolescent, but emerges in mid-adolescence (age 14) o Women more likely than men to engage in ruminative coping: focus attention on their depressive symptoms; men distract themselves by doing something that diverts their attention o Brooding: moody pondering o females and males differ in the stressors they experience; girls face more social challenges than boys o victimization is more common in women and perhaps it is exacerbated by related differences in rumination depression tends to be a recurrent disorder; 80% of those with depression experience another episode and the average age # of episodes is 4 ppl with MDD who had certain coexisting personality disorders had significantly longer time to remission of symptoms than did MDD patients wo any personality disorder kindling hypothesis: once depression has already been experienced, it takes relatively less stress to induce a subsequent recurrence o autonomy hypothesis: depression has become autonomous and no longer requires stress o sensitivity hypothesis: person has become sensitized to stress and even small amounts of stress are sufficient to induce depression Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder bipolar I disorder: involves episodes of mania or mixed episodes that include symptoms of both mania and depression o formal diagnosis requires presence of elevated or irritable mood plus three additional symptoms and four if the mood is irritable o the symptoms must be sufficiently severe to impair social and occupational functioning increase in activity level at work, socially or sexually unusually talkativeness; rapid speech flight of ideas or subjective impression that thoughts are racing less than the usual amount of sleep needed inflated self-esteem; belief that one has special talents, powers and abilities distractibility; attention easily diverted excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that are likely to have undesirable consequences, such as reckless spending bipolar occurs less often than MDD with life prevalence rate of both I and II of about 4.4% of the population in NCS-R the age of onset is in the 20s and it occurs equally often in men and women www.notesolution.com
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