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PSYB32H3 (1,174)
Chapter 3

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB32H3
Professor
Mark Schmuckler
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 3 STAGES OF PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT THE ZYGOTE  First 2 weeks; sperm +ovum THE EMBRYO  Once the zygote is implanted; from the 3 week of pregnancy to the 8 week  Period of rapid growth; recognizable as a human; increases 2 million% in size  The amniotic sac, placenta and umbilical cord develops that protects the baby  The placenta is semi permeable; separates the mother’s and child’s blood but something can be passed on like nutrients and oxygen to the baby and wastes from the baby to be excreted.  The inner mass differentiates in three layers: o Ectoderm: hair, nails, teeth, skin o Mesoderm: muscles, skeleton, circulatory and excretory systems o Endoderm: gastrointestinal tract, trachea and bronchia, lungs, liver  The rapid change makes the embryo susceptible as during the neural folds, if something happens that prevents them from closing completely, the child will develop spina bifida  The 2 prenatal development principle o Cephalocaudal: head downwards o Proximal distal: centre outwards  By the end of 8 weeks, face, fingers, genitals are present THE FETUS  Beginning of the 3 month to delivery  Rapid growth in muscular development and the CNS  Movement by the end of the 4 months  Sucking, swallowing by the end of the 5 month and also grows nails and soft hair all over the body called LANUGO  By six moths, eyes can open and close  If the baby is born prematurely at six months, might develop respiratory distress syndrome  By the 22-26 weeks, called the age of viability, if the baby is born it still has a change to survive RISKS IN THE PRENATAL ENVIRONMENT  TERATOGENS: agents that cause deviations in the development 1. Effect is greatest during critical periods 2. Different teratogens effect different parts 3. The genes of the mother/baby influence the effect of teratogen 4. One teratogen might influence the effect of another 5. Different teratogens might produce the same effects 6. The longer the fetus is exposed and the greater the intensity, the higher the chance of harm ENVIRONMENTAL DANGERS  LEGAL AND ILLEGAL DRUGS o Prescribed and non prescribed drugs and caffeine  NICOTINE AND ALCOHOL o Causes oxygen deprivation and effect the brain o SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME: the infant dies without a cause at the age of 6 months o First hand smoking and even passive smoking has an effect and can cause cognitive disfunction.  FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME o Facial, heart and limb defects o 20% shorter than average, mentally retarded o Last trimester is the optimal time for the alcohol to effect o FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDER  Irritability, hyperactive, banging their heads, rocking rhythmically  Moderate drinking: lower IQ, less attentive. o Solution: raise awareness; knowledge has increased since then  HEROINE, COCAINE AND OTHER DRUGS o Have offspring who are also addicted o The severity of the newborn’s syndrome is related to the length, intensity and continuity of mother’s addiction. o Lack of these behaviours, clinging, acting alert and maintaining eye contact may negatively influence parent-child relationship.  ENVIRONMENTAL TOXINS o Radiation, lead, mercury, pesticides, food additives and cosmetics o Exposure to lead: prematurity, low birthweight, brain damage, physical defects, cognitive and intellectual functioning o Exposure to PCB: smaller, less responsive, lower IQ, poor memory o Father’s exposure to toxins affects the men’s sperm and then genetically passed on. MEDICAL INTERVENTIONS IN PREGNANCY AND CHILD BIRTH SOME DISASTERS  DIEHYLSTILBESTROL o Purpose: to prevent miscarriages o Delayed effects: female offspring born with vaginal abnormalities and cancer of the cervix, high rates of problem in pregnancy; the sons were born with damage to the reproductive tract  THALIDOMIDE o Purpose: relieve the symptoms of morning sickness o Effects: deformations; dislocations of the hip and even PHOCOMELIA which is characterized by missing limbs  MEDICATIONS USED IN DELIVERY AND LABOUR o Irritable, less smiling and less responsive e
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