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Chapter 16

PSYB45H3 Chapter 16: Transferring Behaviour to New Settings and Making It Last

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Jessica Dere

Chapter 16 – Transferring Behaviour to New Settings and Making It Last: Generality of Behavioural Change Generality  Two types of situations: 1. The training situation – the setting in which the behaviour is initially strengthened a. Example: Carole standing in front of a mirror and the empty classroom 2. The target situation – the setting in which we want the behaviour to occur a. Example: the classroom with the audience consisting of the instructor and other students  Behaviour change is said to have generality to the extent that the following occur: 1. Stimulus generalization – the trained behaviour transfers from the training situation to the target situation (usually the natural environment) 2. Response generalization - training leads to the development of new behaviour that has not been specifically trained 3. Behaviour maintenance – the trained behaviour persists in the target situations over time Programming Generality of Operant Behaviour 1. Programming Operant Stimulus Generalization o Stimulus generalization – the procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of a stimulus or situation, and the effect of the response becoming more probable in the presence of another stimulus or situation o Four main strategies for programming operant stimulus generalization 1. Train in the target situation  Example: practicing in the same room that the presentation is held 2. Vary the training conditions  Example: practicing in different weathers 3. Program common stimuli  Example: use a word to trigger a reminder 4. Train sufficient stimulus exemplars  Example: teaching a child to say “dog” when viewing several exemplars of dogs 2. Programming Operant Response Generalization o Response generalization – the procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of a stimulus or situation, and the effect of another response becoming more probable in the presence of that or similar stimuli or situations o Response generalization occurs for several reasons: 1. The more physically similar two responses are, the more unlearned response generalization will occur between them  Example: If you learn a forehand shot in racquetball, chances are that you would be able to perform a forehand shot in squash or tennis 2. Learned response generalization can occur if widely different responses share a common characteristic  Example: adding an “s” to words pertaining to more than one object even when it is grammatically incorrect 3. An individual might show response generalization because he or she has learned functionally equivalent responses to a stimulus  Example: responses that produce the same consequences such as honesty o Strategies for programming response generalization: 1. Train sufficient response exemplars  Example: Girl was taught to name objects correctly in the singular and the plural when presented with one object, and two object. They continued until the girl can appropriately name the object 2. Vary the acceptable responses during training  Example: in developing creativity, reinforced children during block building for any response that was different from prior
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