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Chapter 11

CH.11- psyb45.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Amanda Uliaszek

CH.11- Shortcut Stimulus Control Methods Naela. S Prompting • prompts- are stimuli/ antecedents tht supplement everyday discriminative stimuli for a behaviour, thereby reminding person to perform a behaviour or helping person learn how to perform it • most prompts are learned Sᴰs • prompting forms basis for stimulus control to be transferred or “shifted” from prompt to desired or normal Sᴰ • two types: response & stimulus prompts Response Prompts • response prompts- shortcut stimulus control methods in which teacher or behaviour analyst performs an action as supplement to normal Sᴰ to set occasion for learner to perform target behaviour Physical Guidance Prompts • physical guidance prompt- response prompts tht involve manually moving person's body through desired behaviour • often used to teach simple tasks to children --> e.g. infant who are physically guided to shake rattle & hear its sound soon do it themselves to produce the reinforcing sound • also useful w/ older kids & adults who are trying to improve complex skills such as golfing, playing violin or dancing --> e.g. violin teacher mite put violin position & manually move kid's head to position chin, position hands to correct position etc • placing equipment in elders hands (e.g. bowling ball) & helping them to use it can increase their involvement in activities Verbal Prompts • verbal prompts- response prompts tht are composed of words, such as directions • e.g when teaching a child to read new word, teacher would point to the word and say “dog” then ask child “what's the word” then mite repeat again “it's a dog” until eventually child seeing word, normal Sᴰ, will be sufficient • e.g director of play saying first few words of an actor's lines during rehearsal when actor can't remember them • a form of verbal prompts are instructions, oral or written information tht is designed to describe how to perform target behaviour --> e.g. manual to teach u how to ensemble something • used in many ways: --> four brain-injured ppl were able to modify their behaviour to avoid accidents at home by using checklists tht described potential hazards & included steps to eliminate it --> (opportunity to play game to make their diets healthier) customers at cafeteria serving line got cards tht had verbal prompts such as “the idea is valid- have a salad”.At end of 6 weeks they cud use their cards to win prizes. Even though winning prizes didn't depend on what food customers bought, diets improved during intervention :) • can be less direct such as “wht is next thing you'll do?”-- which doesn't say what specific behaviour shud be, but can serve to encourage person to make response Gestural Prompts • gestural prompts- response prompts tht consist of physical motions tht have meanings the client already knows & that make performing target behaviour likely (physical motions previously learned as Sᴰs for specific behaviours) • e.g. teacher placing finger to lip means to “be quiet” • e.g. orchestra conductor signalling musicians to play louder by using gestures such as turning palms up & hands in high upward direction • e.g. parent teaching child to differentiate between printed words (showing cat & dog) mite tell kid to point to the word cat, & then nod toward correct card--> nod= gestural prompt Modeling Prompts • modeling prompt- response prompts tht involve modeled actions ; antecedent is modeled action, which demonstrates how & induces person to perform behaviour • e.g. wood shop teacher shows students how to install new bit in electric drill & then take out bit, start procedure again, & have students perform rest of procedure, imitating what they had seen --> target person usually sees & learns when to perform behaviour & what consequences likely to follow it • usually combine modeling + instructions in training program --> three 10-13yrs olds w/ moderate retardation trained to prepare foods like scrambled eggs by proving instructions to one student, the model, (verbally & printed recipe with words/pictures) while others watched Stimulus Prompts • stimulus prompts- procedures tht physically change normal antecedent for behaviour by either changing something about Sᴰ itself (within-stimulus prompt) or by adding another stimulus (extra-stimulus prompt) such as pictures or sounds Pictorial Prompts • pictorial prompts- stimulus prompts tht are composed of pictures, such as drawing, painting, video, photographs- to alter normal antecedent -->e.g. teacher wanted to learn name of her students so used extra-stimulus prompts--had them write their names on paper with their picture attached ; during attendance used photo to find child & call the name & later didn’t need photos & cud discard them • pictures also used for within-stimulus prompts: --> pictorial prompt involves accentuating just an element in an Sᴰ , such as part of letter in alphabet to make it more distinctive so tht children can learn to discriminate one letter from another more easily --> can make Sᴰ more noticeable—change its location or size/ colour • pictorial prompts usually consist of single picture to induce person to perform specific response, they can also show sequence of pictures to prompt each link in complex behavioural chain Auditory Prompts • auditory prompt- are sounds other than words person previously learned as Sᴰs for particular behaviours; stimulus prompts tht are composed of sounds other than words • within-stimulus prompt for auditory prompt: --> such as ring of you alar
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