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Chapter 2

PSYB45H3 Chapter 2: PSYB45 - WEEK 2

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Jessica Dere

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Week 2: Respondent vs. Operant Conditioning, Positive Conditioned Reinforcement Chapters 3 4 Chapter 3: RESPONDENT (CLASSICAL, PAVLOVIAN) CONDITIONING OF REFLEXIVE BEHAVIOR Principle of Respondent Conditioning Respondent behaviors: behaviors elicited by prior stimuli and are not affected by their consequences eg. smelling dinner while cooking Respondent behaviors are influenced by respondent conditioning, based on unconditioned reflexes An unconditioned reflex is a stimulusresponse relationship in which a stimulus automatically elicits a response apart from any prior learning hard wired or inborn A stimulus that elicits a response without prior learning or conditioning is called an unconditioned stimulus (US) A response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus is called an unconditioned stimulus is called an unconditioned response (UR) An unconditioned reflex consists of a US and a UR The principle of respondent conditioning states that if an NS is followed closely in time by a US that elicits a UR, then the previous NS will also tend to elicit the response UR in the future. A conditioned reflex is a stimulusresponse relationship in which a stimulus elicits a response because of prior respondent conditioning Factors Influencing Respondent Conditioning First, the greater number of pairings of a CS with a US, the greater is the ability of the CS to elicit the CR, until a max strength of the conditioned reflex has been reached Second, stronger conditioning occurs if the CS precedes the US by about half a second, rather than by a longer time or rather than following the us backward conditioning in the latter case A CS acquires greater ability to elicit a CR if the CS is always paired with the US than if it is only occasionally paired with the US When several neutral stimuli precede a US, the stimulus that is most consistently associated with the US is the one most likely to become a strong CS Respondent conditioning will develop more quickly and strongly when the CS or US or both are intense rather than weak
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