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Chapter 4

Study Guide For Chapter 4

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB45H3
Professor
Christian Campbell
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYB45:Behaviour Modification CHAPTER 4: Developing and maintaining behaviour with conditioned reinforcement Unconditioned reinforcers: a stimulus that is a reinforcer without prior learning or stimulus that is reinforcing without being conditioned. ! they are sometimes also called primary or unlearned reinforcers. !For example: food for a hungry person, water for a thirsty person, warmth for someone who is cold and sexual contacts for someone who has been deprived of such contact. Conditioned reinforcers: a stimulus that is a reinforcer as a result of having been paired with other reinforcers. This is because conditioning is needed to establish such stimuli as reinforcers. ! they are sometimes also called secondary or learned reinforcers. !For example praise, a picture of a loved one, books that we like to read, our favourite television programs and clothes that makes us look good. Backup reinforcers: a stimulus that causes other stimuli to become conditioned reinforcers when they are paired with it; typically used to establish and maintain the strength of conditioned reinforcers. !For example: the type of training conducted with dolphins at Sea World. Early in training, the trainer pairs the sound from a hand-held clicker with the delivery of fish to a dolphin. A fish is a backup reinforcer, and after a number of pairings, the clicking sound becomes a conditioned reinforcer. Later when teaching a dolphin to perform a trick, the sound of the clicking is presented as immediate conditioned reinforcer, and the clicker sound continues to be intermittently paired with fish. **Backup reinforcers can be either conditioned or unconditioned reinforcers**. **Positive reinforcers have a direct-acting effect on behaviours that immediately preceded them**. ** Direct-acting effect a principle of positive reinforcement where there is an increase in frequency of response followed immediately by reinforcer. ** See example on page 52-53 [basketball & coach example] Token: conditioned reinforcers that can be accumulated and exchanged for backup reinforcers. Token System: A behaviour modification program in which individuals can earn token for specific behaviours and can cash in their token for backup reinforcers. ! Token constitute one type of conditioned reinforcers. A common example, already mentioned is “praise”. A mother who expresses pleasure at her child’s good behaviour is www.notesolution.com simultaneously disposed to smile at the child, hug her, play with her, and give her a treat or a toy. Praise is normally established as a conditioned reinforcer during childhood, but it continues to be maintained as one for adults. When people praise us, they are generally more like to favour us in various ways than when they do not praise us. !The main advantage of using conditioned reinforcers in a behaviour modification program is that they often can be delivered more immediately than the backup reinforcer can. They also help to bridge delays between behaviour and more powerful reinforcers. " Just as a stimulus that is paired with reinforcement becomes reinforcing itself, so a stimulus that is paired with punishment becomes punishing itself. “No!” and “stop that”! are examples of stimuli that become conditioned punishers because they are often followed by punishment if the individual continues to engage in the behaviour that provoked them. Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement 1. The Strength of Backup Reinforcer ! the reinforcing power of a conditioned reinforcer depends in part on the reinforcing power of the backup reinforcer(s) on which it is based. For example: suppose Coach Dawson had used only praise as a backup reinforcer for those players who earned points. In that case, the points would have been effective reinforcers only for the players for whom the coach’s praise was an effective reinforcer. 2. The Variety of Backup Reinforcers ! a conditioned reinforcer that is paired with a single backup reinforcer is calls “Simple conditioned reinforcer”. In contrast, a stimulus that is paired with many different kinds of backup reinforcers is referred to as a “generalized conditioned reinforcer”. ! for example adult attention towards their kids such as “feeding them, playing with them, wash them and etc.” ! the reinforcing power of a conditioned reinforcer depends in part on the number of different backup reinforcers available for it. This factor is related to the preceding one in that, if there are many different backup reinforcers available, then at any given time at least one of them will probably be strong enough to maintain tokens at a high reinforcing strength for any individual in the program. 3. The Schedule of Pairing with the Backup Reinforcer ! conditioned reinforcement is more effective if a backup reinforcer does not follow each occurance of the conditioned reinforcer. www.notesolution.com 4. Extinction of the Conditioned Reinforcer ! For a conditioned reinforcer to remain effective, it must continue to be associated with a suitable backup reinforcer, at least occasionally. Ceasing to provide backup reinforcement for a conditioned reinforcer is called extinction of a conditioned reinforcer and is similar to the procedure described in chapter 5 for extinguishing a response. Pitfalls of conditioned reinforcement – How the principle can work against the unwary !One very common misapplication occurs when an adult scolds a child for behaving inappropriately, but a) does not provide any type of “backup punisher” along with the scolding, and b) does not reinforce desired alternative behaviour. The attention that accompanies such negative verbal stimuli may even be highly reinforcing, especially for individuals with development handicaps who often do not receive much attention from adults. !The classic example is the parent who spanks a child for misbehaviour and then “feeling guilty” from the ensuing piteous crying, immediately hugs the child and gives her ice cream or some other treat. Another Pitfall !extinction of a conditioned reinforcer can be unknowingly applied with unfortunate results by those who are unfamiliar with this aspect of conditioned reinforcement. !www.notesolution.comPSYB45:Behaviour Modification CHAPTER 4: Developing and maintaining behaviour with conditioned reinforcement Unconditioned reinforcers: a stimulus that is a reinforcer without prior learning or stimulus that is reinforcing without being conditioned. they are sometimes also called primary or unlearned reinforcers. For example: food for a hungry person, water for a thirsty person, warmth for someone who is cold and sexual contacts for someone who has been deprived of such contact. Conditioned reinforcers: a stimulus that is a reinforcer as a result of having been paired with other reinforcers. This is because conditioning is needed to establish such stimuli as reinforcers. they are sometimes also called secondary or learned reinforcers. For example praise, a picture of a loved one, books that we like to read, our favourite television programs and clothes that makes us look good. Backup reinforcers: a stimulus that causes other stimuli to become conditioned reinforcers when they are paired with it; typically used to establish and maintain the strength of conditioned reinforcers. For example: the type of training conducted with dolphins at Sea World. Early in training, the trainer pairs the sound from a han
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