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Chapter 11

Study Guide For Chapter 11

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Christian Campbell

Chapter 11: Getting a New Sequence of Behaviour to Occur with Behavioural Chaining Behaviour Chaining D - A sequence of discriminative stimuli (S s) and response (Rs) in which each response except the last produces the S for the next response, and the last response is typically followed by a reinforceD D - Followed by the first S , which is the cue for the response, each S in a behaviour chain is conditioned reinforcer for the previous response - The stimulus-response connections are the links that hold the chain together - If any response is so weak that it fails to be evoked by the S preceding it, the next S will not be produced and rest of the chain will not occur - The chain will be broken at the point of its weakest link - The only way to repair the chain is by strengthening the weak stimulus-response connection by means of an effective training procedure + - Symbol of S at the far right of the diagram symbolizes the positive reinforcer that follows the last response in the chain - Many behaviour sequences that you perform in everyday life are behavioural chains o Playing a particular song on an instrument, brushing your teeth, lacing, tying your shoes and making a sandwich are all behavioural chains Methods of Teaching a Behavioural Chain - Three methods of teaching a behavioural Chain o Total-task presentation The learner attempts all the steps from the beginning to the end of the chain on each trail continue with total task trials until all steps are mastered Prompting is provided at each step as needed and a reinforcer follows a correct competition of the last step An example would be teaching a developmental disabled to brush to brush their teeth o Backward chaining Gradually construc the chain in a reverse order from that in which the chain is performed Last step is established first, then the next to the last and o on until the final starting point is learned last Has been used in numerous programs, including teaching various dressing, grooming, work, and verbal behaviours to individual with developmental disabilities www.notesolution.com When the step before the last is added, the S in that step also becomes a conditioned reinforcer and so on. Thus, the power of the positive reinforcer that is presented at the end of the chain is transferred up the line D to each S s as it is added to the chain Backward chaining has a theoretical advantage of always having a built-in conditioned reinforcer to strengthen each new response that is added to the sequence o Forward Chaining The initial step of the sequence is taught first, then the first and second steps are taught together, then the first three steps, and so on until the entire chain is required Backward chaining resembles a rever
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