Textbook Notes (363,452)
Canada (158,372)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB45H3 (1,061)
Jessica Dere (573)
Chapter 1


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Jessica Dere

CHAPTER 1 What is Behaviour?: - anything a person says or does - any muscular, glandular, or electrical activity of an organism - but getting an A or losing 10 lbs is the product of a behaviour; the result that a behaviour achieves - overt behaviours: behaviours that could be observed and recorded by an individual other than the one performing it eg: running, passing a bowl at dinner - covert behaviour: behaviour that cannot be readily observed by others activities that occur ‘within one’s skin;’ which require special instruments or procedures for others to observe eg: thinking and feeling - cognitive behaviours: examples such as thinking or talking or feeling by self - dimensions of behaviour: characteristics of behaviour that can be measured - duration of behaviour: how long the behaviour lasts eg: Mary studied for 30 seconds - frequency of behaviour: the # of instances that occur within a given period of time eg: Mary read the page 5 times in 30 mins - intensity or force of a behaviour: the physical effort or nrg involved in emitting the behaviour eg: Mary has a strong grip when she is shaking hands Summary Labels: - summary labels: words referring to define the human action eg: unsociable, friendly, kind, loud, quiet, selfish - they don’t refer to specific behaviours eg: describing someone as being “nervous” doesn’t tell if he bites his nails regularly or makes ticks - behaviour modifiers talk more precisely about behaviour but helping specialists use general terms such as: intelligence, attitudes, and creativity - summary terms are often used to describe behaviour patterns because: they are quick in providing general info about an individual and how he might perform eg: a 10 yr old child labeled as having ADHD would be expected to be running around and they may imply that a particular treatment program will be helpful - disadvantages: summary labels for behaviour lead to pseudo-explanations (circular reasoning) of behaviour eg: child who inverts words while reading might be labeled dyslexic  when we ask why he inverts words, one might answer by saying “because he is dyslexic” they negatively affect the way an individual might be treated eg: teachers may be less likely to encourage children to do problem solving if they are labeled as mentally retarded it directs our focus to an individual’s problem behaviours rather than on their strengths - two ways to describe problematic behaviours: behavioural deficits: too little of a particular type of behaviour behaviour excesses: too much behaviour of a particular type Behaviour Modification: - involves systematic application of learning principles and techniques to assess and improve individuals’ covert and overt behaviours to enhance daily fning - characteristics: its strong emphasis on defining problems in terms of behaviour that can be measured in some way and using changes in behavioural measure of the problem as best indicator of the extent to which the problem is being helped ^ most imp its treatment procedures and techniques are ways of altering an individual’s current environment to help th
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