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Jessica Dere (593)
Chapter 3


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Jessica Dere

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CHAPTER 3- Getting behaviour to occur more often with positive reinforcement • Reinforcing Darren’s behaviour - 6 year old boy, very un-cooperative with parents, commanding - Parents took him to Gatzert Child Developmental Clinic at university of Washington - Told mother to spend time with him the in the clinic’s playroom - Darren showed very low rate of cooperative behaviour - Showed very high rate of commanding behaviour - Mother told to ignore commanding behaviour while be supportive towards cooperative behaviour - Commanding behaviour of Darren decreased to near zero - Baseline phase- is a measure of behaviour in the absence of a treatment program • Positive Reinforcer- stimulus, when presented immediately after behaviour, causes behaviour to increase in frequency • Synonymous word for reward • Positive reinforcement- in a given situation, a person who performs an action followed by a positive reinforcer, the person is more likely to repeat the action when they encounter a similar situation • May take several repetitions before reinforced response would show an obvious increase (noticeable to a casual observer) • Operant behaviours (or operant Reponses): behaviours that operate on the environment to generate consequences and are in turn influenced by those consequences • Principle of positive reinforcement is a law Factors influencing the effectiveness of positive reinforcement 1. Selecting the behavior to be increased • Behaviour must be identified specifically • General behavior (e.g. - being more friendly), then identify specific behavior (e.g. smiling) by characterizing the category • By being specific:  Help ensure the reliability of detecting instances of the behavior and changes in the frequency—which can help in judging the reinforcers effectiveness  Increase the possibility that the reinforcement program will be applied consistently 2. Choosing reinforcers (“Different Strokes for different folks”) • Case of a 6 year old Dianne with developmental disability • Able to mimic a number of words and were trying to teach her to name pictures • Two commonly used stimulus that did not work with Dianne were candy and bites of child’s supper (spat them out) • Allowing her to play with a toy purse for 15 seconds was very reinforcing • She is now after training able to speak in phrases and complete sentences • Important thing to keep is to use a reinforcers that is effective with the individual with whom you are working • Positive reinforcers are events that strengthen a response when they are introduced or added following the response • Removal of an event following a response may also strengthen that response (NOT POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT) • Example: termination of nagging when dishwashing occurs= strengthen the dishwashing response; nagging’s removal (not introduction) following the response that strengthened it  escape conditioning or negative reinforcement, states there are certain stimuli= Aversive stimuli, whose removal ASAP after the occurrence of a behaviour will increase the possibility of that behaviour. Positive reinforcers classified as: 1) Consumable: one can eat  candy, cookies, drinks 2) Activity: opportunities to watch TV, look at picture book, or stare out a window 3) Manipulative: opportunities to play with a favourite toy, colour, paint, surf internet, etc. 4) Processional: to sit in favourite spot, wear favourite shirt, enjoy an item that one can possess 5) Social: affectionate pats or hugs, nods, smiles, simple glance or other social attention attention from others is a very strong reinforcer for almost every one • Trial and error involved in finding appropriate reinforcers • Observe person’s daily activities and note activities they engage in most often • Premack principle- formulated by David Premack, 1959; states that if the opportunity to engage in a behaviour that has a high probability of occurring is made dependent on a behaviour that has a low probability of occurring, then behaviour of low probability will be strengthened • Example: depressed 17-year-old college student, increase frequency of positive self-statements. Told to imagine positive thought-low probability of occurring- before urinating; after two weeks, student reported positive thoughts were occurring at a high rate. • Allow an individual to choose among a number of available reinforcers variety: valuable asset to the training program • Individual’s performance tells if an effective reinforcer has been chosen or not • An object or event is defined as a reinforcer only by its effect on behaviour • Many critics believe that tangible items to reinforce someone’s behaviour should not be used since that undermines the person’s intrinsic motivation (inner desire or sense of satisfaction)  example: parents gives money to child as a reinforcer for reading; then child will be less likely to read for reading’s sake (WRONG VIEW- experimentally/researched) • Extrinsic-intrinsic distinction between reinforcers may not even be valid: All reinforcers involve external (extrinsic) stimuli and all have internal (intrinsic) aspects 3. Motivating Operations - Most reinforcers will not be effective unless the individual has been deprived of them for some period of time prior to their use - Longer the deprivation, the more effective the reinforce will be - Deprivation: the time during which an individual does not experience a particular reinforce • Satiation: a condition in which an individual has experienced a particular reinforce to such an extent that it is temporarily no longer reinforcing  “enough is enough” -Events or conditions- such as deprivation and satiation: • Motivating operations (MOs): a) Temporarily alter the effectiveness of a reinforce b) Alter the frequency of behaviour reinforced by that reinforce 4. Reinforcer Size • Size (amount or magnitude) of reinforcer = important determinant in its effectiveness • Example: females in hospital given tokens (reinforcer) in return for brushing their teeth; percent increased with 5 tokens • Optimum amount of reinforcer to ensure its effectiveness depends on additional factors, such as difficulty of behaviour and availability of competing behaviours for alternative reinforcers • Size must be sufficient to strengthen behaviour that is desired to increase • If goal to conduct a number of trials during session (teaching basic language with development disability) reinforcer on each trial= small enough to minimize satiation & maximize number of reinforced trials per session 5. Instructions: Use of Rules • Instructions can facilitate behaviour changes: speed up learning process • Example: tennis players practicing backhand shots; showed little progress when told just to concentrate; rapid improvement when told to vocalize “ready” or “bounce & hit!” • Adding instructions to reinforcement programs may help individuals (young or developmental disability children) to follow instructions • Bribery: a reward or gift offered to induce someone to commit an immoral or illegal act • Worki
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