Textbook Notes (368,318)
Canada (161,798)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB45H3 (1,081)
Jessica Dere (593)
Chapter 4


5 Pages
Unlock Document

Jessica Dere

CHAPTER 4: DEVELOPING AND MAINTIANING BEHAVIOUR WITH CONDITIONED REINFORCEMENT Erin’s points program: • Erin had a rude behaviour which she changed by putting herself in a points program • She liked spending time on Facebook and YouTube after doing her homework • She carried an index card where she would note down points for herself whenever she was nice to someone • In the evening after finishing her homework she allowed herself time n her favourite sites according to her points menu • E.g. 2 points = 20 minutes of time, 4 points= 40 minutes of time, 6 points= 60 minutes of time, more than 6 points= as much as she wants • A week later, her behaviour had changed a lot UNCONDITIONED AND CONDITIONED REINFORERS • We have inherited the capacity to be reinforced by some stimuli without prior learning • Unconditioned reinforcers (primary or unlearned reinforcers): stimuli or events which are important for survival or biological functioning o Examples:  Food for hungry person  Water for thirsty person  Warmth for someone who is cold  Sexual contact for someone who has been deprived • Conditioned reinforcers (secondary or learned reinforcers): stimuli that were not originally reinforcing but have become reinforcers by being paid or associated with other reinforcers o Example:  Praise  Picture of a loved one  Books we like to read  Favourite television program  Clothes that make us look good • Backup reinforcers: the other reinforcers; when a stimulus becomes a conditioned reinforcer through deliberate association with other reinforcers. o Example: hand held clicker with delivery of fish to dolphins  Fish is a backup reinforcers  After number of pairings, clicking sounds becomes conditioned reinforcers  Sound of clicker presented as immediate conditioned reinforcer when teaching dolphin to perform tricks, with clicker sound paired intermittently with fish - Training dolphins: backup reinforcer—the fish = unconditioned reinforcer - Erin’s points were not the primary reinforcers, she didn’t do it for only the sake of points - Points were conditioned reinforcers because they were paired with backup reinforcer aka opportunity to go on facebook/youtube - Erin’s example: backup reinforcer for points was also a conditioned reinforcer - Erin was not born with facebook/youtube being unconditioned reinforcers for her, rather became conditioned reinforcers by being paired with things like attention from adults and friends - Backup reinforcers that give conditioned reinforcer its strength can be either unconditioned reinforcers (fish with dolphins) or other conditioned reinforcers (time spent on facebook/youtube) Tokens as Conditioned Reinforcers • Tokens: conditioned reinforcers that can be accumulated and exchanged for backup reinforcers • Token Economy or Token System: behaviour modification program in which individuals can earn tokens for specific behaviours and can cash in their tokens for backup reinforcers o Example: gold stars for kindergarten kids for various things like playing cooperatively during recess or one star per correct answer; at the end of the day, child can cash for backup reinforcer: playing games on computer (depending on amount of stars collected); poker chips retained for cash; “paper money”- amount earned, name of person, name of employee who paid, date and task to earn token • Tokens constitute one type of conditioned reinforcer, but stimuli that cannot be accumulated can also be conditioned reinforcers o Example: praise. Mother expresses pleasure at good behaviour of child: smile at, hug or play with child. Treat or toy may accompany mother’s praise • When people praise us, they are generally more likely to favour us in ways that when they do not praise us • Praise= conditioned reinforcer, not token reinforcer; bunch of praise statements cannot be saved up and exchanged got a backup reinforcer • Advantage of tokens: usually be delivered more immediately than the backup reinforcer; help bridge delays between behaviour and more powerful reinforcers • Conditioned punishment similar to that of conditioned reinforcement • “No” and “stop that” are examples of stimuli that becomes conditioned punishers because they are often followed punishment if individual continues to engage in the behaviour that provoked them
More Less

Related notes for PSYB45H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.