Textbook Notes (363,452)
Canada (158,372)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB45H3 (1,061)
Jessica Dere (573)
Chapter 10


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Jessica Dere

Chapter 10: Behavior Modification PSYB45 Getting a new behavior to occur with shaping Shaping - can be used to establish a behavior that the individual never performs - behavior modifiers begin by reinforcing a response that occurs with more frequency than 0 and at least remotely resembles the final desired response - shaping can be define as the development of a new behavior by the reinforcement of successive approximations of that behavior and the extinctions of earlier approximations of that behavior until the new behavior occurs - shaping is sometimes referred to as the method of successive approximations - Behavior an individual acquires during a lifetime develop from a variety of sources and influences - Sometimes a new behavior develops when an individual performs some initial behavior and the environment then reinforces slight variations in that behavior across a number of trials - Eventually, initial behavior may be shaped so that the final form no longer resembles it - First a child passes through a stage in which very remote approximations of words in the parents native language are reinforced - Then child enters a stage in which baby talk is reinforced - Finally the parents and others require the child to pronounce words in accordance with the practices of the verbal community before reinforcement is given Eg. Child who says wa-wa at an early stage is given glass of water and if she is thirsty the action reinforced the response at the later stage watah rather than wa- wa is reinforced and then finally the child must say water before water reinforcement will be given. - 5 aspects/dimensions of behavior Topography: spatial configuration or form of a particular response (eg. Specific movements involved) Topography shaping occurs when teaching a child to switch from a painting to a writing response Chapter 10: Behavior Modification PSYB45 Frequency: number of instances that occur in a given period of time eg. Increasing number of steps during an exercise routine Duration: is the length of time that it lasts Latency: time between the occurrence of a stimulus and the response evoked by that stimulus Common term for latency is reaction time Intensity: force of a response refers to the physical effect the response has or potentially has
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