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Chapter 6

PSYB45 Chapter 6 Detailed notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 6PunishmentDefining PunishmentPunishmento1 Particular behavior occurso2 Consequence immediately follows behavioro3 As result behavior is less likely to occur again in futurePunisher aversive stimulus Consequence that makes particular behavior less likely to occur in futureoDefined on effect on behavior it followsCant defined punishment by whether consequence appears unfavorable or aversiveCan conclude that particular consequence is punishing only if behavior decreases in futurePoint to consider is whether behavior decreases or stops only temporarily when consequence is administered or whether behavior decreases in future Common Misconception About PunishmentPunishment is technical term with specific meaningBehavior analysts refer to process in which consequence of behavior results in future decrease in occurrence of that behaviorIn general punishment can mean different thingsmost unpleasant People defined punishment as something meted out to person who has committed crime or other inappropriate behaviorIn this context punishment involves not only hope that behavior will cease but also elements of retribution or retaliationPunishment has moral or ethical connotationsUnfortunate that Skinner adopted punishment term that has existing meaning and may negative connotationsPositive and Negative PunishmentPositive punishmento1 Occurrence of behavioro2 Followed by presentation of aversive stimuluso3 As result behavior is less likely to occur in futureNegative punishmento1 Occurrence of behavioro2 Followed by removal of reinforcing stimuluso3 As result behavior is less likely to occur in futureAzrin and HolzoDiscussed early animal research on punishmentCorte Wolf and LockeoHelped institutionalized adolescents with mental retardation decrease self injurious behavior by using punishmentPremack principle is form of positive punishmentPunishment results in an immediate decrease in target behaviorTakes longer for behavior to decrease and extinction burst often occurs before behavior decreasesWith punishment there isnt extinction burstTime out from positive reinforcement type of negative punishment in which contingent on occurrence of problem behavior person loses access to positive reinforcers for brief periodResponse cost negative procedure in which contingent on behavior a specified amount of a reinforce is removed
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