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PSYB45H3 (1,061)
Chapter 11


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

CH.11 Chaining - A complex behavior consisting of manycomponent behaviorsthatoccurtogether ina sequence iscalled a behavioral chain Ex:Eating gum,foldingtowels.Eachcomponent behavior in the chair dpendson theoccurrenceofthepreviousbehavior Analyzing Stimulus-Response Chains - Each behavioral chain consists of anumber ofindividualstimulus-responsecomponents that occur together in asequence.A behavioralchain isoften called a stimulus-response chain - Each behavior or response in the chain producesastimuluschangethatactsasan sDfor the next response in thechain.Thefirst responsesin thechainoccur inorder. Task Analysis - Task analysis: the processof analyzingabehavioralchain bybreakingitdown intoits individual stimulusresponse components - A task analysisto identify the rightsequence ofbehaviorsin achainmaybeconducted in various ways.One way is to observeapersonengageinthetask andrecord eachofthe stimulus-response components.Ex-Horner andKleilitzconducted studyinwhichthey taught adolescents with intellectualdisabilitiestobrushtheir teeth.Another method isto ask a person who performsthe task well(expert)toexplainallthecomponentsin thetask and you can dvlpd ataskanalysisbyperforming thetask yourselfandrecordingthe sequence of responses in the task - Once the task analysisof a complex skillhasbeen developed,thenext stepistochoosea strategy for teaching theskill.Strategiesfor teachingcomplex tasks(behavioralchains)are called chaining procedures, it involvesthesystematicapplication ofpromptingand fading strategiesto each stimulus-responsecomponent inthechain.3diffchainingprocedures are: backward conditioning, forward chaining,and totaltask presentation Backward Chaining - Intensive training procedure typicallyused withlearnerswithlimited abilities - With backward chaining,you use promptingand fadingtoteachthelast behaviorinthe chain first - You present the last sD, prompt the correctresponse,and provide areinforcer:sD5+ prompt  R5 reinforcer - You teach the right behavior by showinglittlebylittlebutbackwardstoget the whole thing right.Using reinforcersat eachstepinthebackward chainingprocessisimportant because it makes the outcome of eachstepaconditioned reinforcer,aswellasan sDfor the next response Forward Chaining - Similar to backwardchaining in thatyouteachonecomponent ofthechain at atimeand then chain the components together,and youusepromptingandfadingto teachthe behavior associated with the sD ateachstepinthechain - Difference isthe point atwhich youbegintraining.Withbackward chaining,youteachthe last component first then you teachthenext tolast component and soon; inforward chaining you teach the first component,then thesecond component andsoon. - You present the first sD,prompt the correctresponse,and provide areinforcer afterthe response. You then fade your promptsuntilthepersonisengaginginthefirstresponse without any prompts when the first sDispresented.Totrainthesecond component,you present the first sD and the learner makesthefirst response.Becausethefirstresponse createsthe second sD,you then prompt the second responseand provideareinforcer after it occurs.Then you do the same withthethird responseuntilit occurswithout any prompts.Ex:eating with a spoon-first sD:put bowloffood and spoonon the tableinfront of the learner.Prompting the firstresponsebytakinglearner’shand,pickup the spoon,put it in the applesauce andprovide a reinforcer (praiseand occasionallyasmallbiteoffood). Then you startfading the prompt sothelearnercould doit ontheir own. - Step 2,present first sD and after theyengageinthefirst responseand thespoonisinthe bowl,physically prompt the second response.Fadethepromptuntilthelearner can scoop food on the spoon without any assistance - Nowadd step three, start by presentingthefirstsD.Assoonasthelearnermakesthe first rd 2 responses and food isscooped ontothespoon(the 3 sD),prompt the learner toraisethe spoon and put the food into their mouth(third response).Thetaste offood willbeanatural reinforcer forthe thirdresponse. Fadeyour prompts. - Providing a reinforcer after eachresponsein thechain duringtraining,theoutcomeof each response becomesa conditioned reinforcer.Thisisimprtnt withforward chainingb.c you don’t get to thenatural reinforcer at the endof thechain until you train the last component - The continuousreinforcement schedulenowswitched tointermittentreinforcement to maintain the behavior. The ultimate goalistohavethebehaviormaintained bynatural reinforcer. - Similaritiesbetween FCand BC:bothused toteachachainofbehaviors,touse ityouhave to conduct a task analysistht breaksdown thechainintostimulus-responsecomponents, both teach one behavior(one component ofthechain)at atimeand chainthebehaviors together,andboth procedures usepromptingand fadingtoteacheach component - Differences:FC teachersfirst component firstbut BCteacheslast component first,the learner completes the chain in everylearningtrialand receivesthenaturalreinforcer in every learning trial.In forward chaining,thelearner doesnotcompletethechaininevery learning trial,artificialreinforcersareused untilthelast component ofthechain istaught. The natural reinforcer occurs after last behavior of the chain for FC Total Task Presentation - The complex chain of behaviorsistaughtasasingleunit.Thetotaltask iscompleted in
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