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Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 15: Differential Reinforcement Differential Reinforcement procedures involve applying reinforcement & extinction to increase the occurrence of a desirable target behaviour or to decrease the occurrence of undesirable behaviours. Three Types of Differential Reinforcement Procedures: 1. DRA : differential reinforcement of alternative behaviour 2. DRO : differential reinforcement of other behaviour 3. DRL : differential reinforcement of low rates of responding Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behaviour - used to increase frequency of a desirable behaviour & decrease frequency of undesirable behaviours. - Desirable reinforced each time it occurs - Results in increase in the future probability of the DB. - Undesirable behaviours that may interfere w the DB are not reinforced - Results in a decrease in the future probability of the UDB. - Combining reinforcement for a DB & extinction of UDB. - EG: Getting Mrs. Williams to Be Positive Been in nursing home for about a yr, complained whenever she saw a nurse, nurses would comfort, it would get worse. Rarely said anything positive anymore. Nurses instructed to do 3 things: 1. When they saw Mrs. Williams they were to say something positive to her immediately 2. Whenever Mrs. Williams says anything positive, the nurse was to stop what they were doing immediately, smile at her and actively listen to her and pay attention to what she was saying. They were to continue listening and actively pay attention to her as long as she continued saying positive things. 3. Whenever Mrs. Williams started to complain, the nurses were to excuse themselves & leave the room or become to busy to listen at that time. As soon as Mrs. Williams said anything positive the nurse was to stop what they were doing and pay attention to her again. www.notesolution.com o Nurses consistently applied this program and in a matter of weeks Mrs. Williams was complaining less, saying many more positive things and complaining very little. o Reinforcement: o Antecedent nurse present o Response Mrs. Williams says positive things o Consequence Nurses provide attention o OUTCOME: In future, Mrs. W is more likely to say positive things when a nurse is present. o Extinction: o Antecedent nurse present o Response Mrs. W complains o Consequence Nurses dont provide attention o OUTCOME: In the future Mrs. W is less likely to complain to nurses. o Mrs. Williams said more positive things, it was not only because this behaviour was reinforced by the nurses but also because complaining was decreased through extinction. If the nurses did not use extinction for the complaining, it would continue to occur and there would be less opportunity for positive talk to increase. When to use DRA: Answer three questions: 1. Do you want to increase the rate of a desirable behaviour? 2. Is the behaviour already occurring at least occasionally? 3. Do you have access to a reinforcer that you can deliver after the occurrence of the behaviour? - DRA : procedure for strengthening a desirable behaviour - If the behaviour itself isnt occurring at all, then DRA is not an appropriate procedure on its own. - If procedures such as shaping or prompting are used initially to evoke behaviour, DRA may then be used to strengthen & maintain the behaviour. - MUST be able to identify a reinforcer that you can use each time the behaviour occurs. - IF: no identifiable reinforcer OR no control over the reinforcer, you cannot use DRA. www.notesolution.com
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