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Chapter 1

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB51H3
Professor
Matthias Niemeier
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 1 Notes (pg.3-29): INTRODUCTION: Sensation: The ability to detect a stimulus and, perhaps to turn that detection into a private experience. Perception: The act of giving meaning to a detected sensation. The variety of methods used to study the senses: Method 1: Thresholds ­ This is concerned with the different variations of sound one can hear and how it works, often involving loud sounds or faint sounds. Method 2: Scaling (Measuring Private Experience) ­ There is no direct way to experience someone else’s experiences. ­ Some people do have different sensory worlds so that their experience of a color for example might be different from my experience of that color. Nevertheless people are able to understanding these experiences through the scaling method. ­ Quale (pl. Qualia): In philosophy, a private conscious experience of sensation or perception. Method 3: Signal Detection Theory (Measuring Difficult Decisions) ­ This theory allows scientist to study how people make tough decision. Method 4: Sensory Neuroscience ­ Tries to explain how one’s perception of the world depends on the activity of one’s sensory nerves at least as much as it depends on the world itself. Method 5: Neuroimaging (An Image of the Mind) ­ In binocular rivalry one is presented with two images for each eye, these images differ however, and in observing them one sees the images switch. For example: My right eye is presented with a face while my left eye is presented with a house, what happens is that I can see the face and then the house and then the face and then the house. It thus appears that the two images are competing for my attention. It is through neuroimaging that we are able to see how this experience is being presented. THRESHOLDAND THE DAWN OF PSYCHOPHYSICS: ­ Gustav Fechner: AGerman scientist-philosopher often considered to be the true founder of experimental psychology.Absorbed with the relationship between the mind and body he came up with a new approach of understanding their relation called Panpsychism: The idea that the mind exists as a property of all matter, that is that all matter has consciousness which extended not only to animals but inanimate objects. His goal was to formally describe the relationship between sensation (mind) and the energy (matter) that gave rise to that sensation. He called both his method and theory Psychophysics: The science of defining quantitative relationships between physical and psychological (subjective) events. ­ His idea of Panpsychism was presented during the time of two famous proposals called Dualism and Materialism. ­ Dualism: The idea that the mind has an existence separate from the material world of the body ­ Materialism: The idea that the only thing that exists is matter, and that all things, including the mind and consciousness are the results of interaction between bits of matter. ­ Ernst Weber: An anatomist and physiologist who was interested in touch. ­ Two-point touch threshold: The minimum distance at which two stimuli (e.g. two simultaneous touches) are just perceptible as separate. ­ Just noticeable difference (JND) or difference threshold: The smallest detectable difference between two stimuli, or the minimum change in a stimulus that enables it to be correctly judged as different from a reference stimulus. ­ Weber fraction: The constant of proportionality in Weber’s law. ­ Weber’s law: The principle describing the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the just noticeable difference (JND) is a constant fraction of the comparison stimulus. The size of the detectable difference (ΔI) is a constant proportion (K) of the level of the stimulus (I) ­ Fechner’s law: Aprinciple describing the relationship between stimulus and resulting sensation that says the magnitude of subjective sensation increases proportionally to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity. S = k log R  S in the psychological sensation, which is equal to the logarithm of the physical stimulus level (log R) multiplied by a constant k. ­ Absolute threshold: The minimum amount of stimulation necessary for a person to detect a stimulus 50% of the time. Psychophysical Methods: 1) Method of constant stimuli: a method of measuring absolute threshold, which requires creating many stimuli with different intensities, in order to find the tiniest intensity that can be detected. ­ There is no hard boundary that exists in measuring the weakest detectable stimulus. Because of the variability in the nervous system, stimuli near the threshold will be detected sometimes and missed other times. ­ The method of constant stimuli is simple to use, but it can be somewhat inefficient in an experiment because much of the subject’s time can be spent with stimuli that are clearly well above or below threshold.As a more sufficient approach is the: 2) Method of limits: In this method the experimenter begins with the same set of stimuli- in this case, tones that vary in intensity. Instead of random presentation, tones are presented in order of increasing or decreasing intensity. When tones are presented in ascending order, from faintest to loudest, listeners are asked to report when they first hear the tone. With descending order, the task is to report when the tone is no longer audible. They take the average of these crossover points – when listeners shift from reporting hearing the tone to not hearing the tone, and vice versa – to be the threshold. 3) Method of adjustment: This method is just like the method of limits, expect the subject is the one who steadily increases or decreases the intensity of the stimulus. Scaling Methods and Supertasters: ­ Magnitude estimation:Apsychophysical method invented by S.S Stevens in which the participant assigns values according to perceived magnitudes of the stimuli. (E.g. rating sugary solutions from a scale of 1-10 depending on how sugary they are.) ­ The relationship between stimulus intensity and sensation is described by what is now known as Stevens’ power law (S=al): which states that the sensation (S) is related to the stimulus intensity (I) by an exponent (b). ­ ­ Weber’s law: involves a clear objective measurement. We know how much we varied the stimulus, and either the observers can tell that the stimulus changed or they cannot. ­ Fechner’s law: begins with the same sort of objective measurements as Weber’s, but the law is actually a calculation based on some assumptions about how sensation works. In particular, Fechner’s law assumes that all just noticeable differences (JNDs) are perceptually equivalent which is incorrect. ­ Steven’s power law: describes rating data quite well, but notice that rating data are qualitatively different from the data that supported Weber’s law. We can record the subjects’ ratings and we can check whether those ratings are reasonable and consistent, but there is no way to know whether they are objectively right or wrong. ­ Cross-modality: Is a useful scaling method, which can show that different individuals can live in different sensory worlds, even if they are exposed to the same stimuli. In this method, an observer adjusts a stimulus of one sort to match the perceived magnitude of a stimulus of a completely different sort. This means that two different stimuli are presented and the observer is to make them equal to one another. For example: one might ask a listener to adjust the brightness of a light until it matches the loudness of a particular tone, which result is the same pattern of matches among people with “normal” vision and hearing. ­ Though the relationship between vision and hearing seems to be similar across individuals, the case differs when it comes to the sense of taste. The molecule called propylthiouracil (PROP) is experienced as very bitter by some people, while others experience it as almost tasteless. Some people match the taste of PROP to very weak sensations like the sound of a whisper, however a group of supertasters assert that the bitterness of PROP is similar to the most intense pain ever experienced. ­ Supertasters: Individuals whose perception of taste sensations is the most intense. Signal Detection Theory ­ Signal Detection Theory: Apsychophysical theory that quantifies the response of an observer to the presentation of a signal in the presence of noise. Measures obtained from a series of presentations are sensitivity (d’) and criterion of the observer. ­ To better illustrate this theory, take for example the noise you hear in the shower, at times this noise sounds louder to you and sometimes it seems softer. Now imagine being in the shower and the phone rings, which will act as our signal. What you hear now is a combination of the shower and the phone ringing, thus adding a signal (ringing) to the noise (shower). Now we have a noise-alone distribution and a signal-plus-noise distribution. What this means is that we have two options either we are simply just hearing noise or we are hearing noise coming from the shower but also a phone ringing. How do we then decide whether to go and answer the phone or dismiss it? Well, we must first decide whether we are hearing noise alone or noise plus signal. To do so we must decide on a criterion level of response. ­ Criterion: In signal detection theory, an internal threshold that is set by the observer. If the internal response is above criterion, the observer gives one response (e.g. “yes, I hear that”). Below criterion, the observer gives another response (e.g. “no I hear nothing”). ­ Aresponse inside the observer, above criterion will be taken as evidence that a signal is present. Aresponse below the level will be treated as noise. ­ After we decided whether what we heard was a noise or a noise plus signal there are four possible outcomes in regards to our actions. 1) You say “no” when there is no ring, known as correct rejection 2) You might say “yes” when there is a ring, known as a hit 3) You might say “yes” when there is no ring, known as false alarm 4) You say “no” when there is a ring, known as a miss ­ How sensitive are you to the ring? To determine one’s sensitivity there must be a greater separation between the noise-alone and signal-plus-noise distribution. In simple terms, the closer the signal is to the noise the harder it is to detect a signal, they must be distinct or separate from one another in order for one to be sensitive to a difference. If the distributions completely overlap, d’= 0 and you have no ability to detect the signal. If the distributions mediate, you have some sensitivity but your performance will be imperfect, in this situation for example d’= -1. If d’ is big then distinguishing signal from noise is trivial, and in this situation d’= - 4 ­ Sensitivity: In signal detection theory, a value that defines the e
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