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Chapter 4

PSYB51 Chapter 4 Definitions

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB51H3
Professor
Matthias Niemeier
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 4 Definitions • middle (midlevel) vision: a loosely defined stage of visual processing that comes after basic features have been extracted from the image (early vision) and before object recognition and scene understanding (high-level vision) • illusory contour: a contour that is perceived, even though nothing changed from one side of the contour to the other in the image • structuralism: a school of thought believing that complex objects or perceptions could be understood by analysis of the components • Gestalt: in german, literally “form”. In perception, the name of a school of thought stressing that the perceptual whole could be greater than the apparent sum of parts • Gestalt grouping rules: a set of rules describing which elements in an image will appear to group together. The original list was assembled by members of the gestalt school of thought • good continuation: a gestalt grouping rule stating that two elements will tend to group together if they seem to lie on the same contour • texture segmentation: carving an image into regions of common texture properties. • similarity: a gestalt grouping rule stating that the tendency of two features to group together will increase as the similarity between them increases • proximity: a gestalt grouping rule stating that the tendency of two features to group together will increase as the distance between them deceases • parallelism: a rule for figure-ground assignment stating that parallel contours are likely to belong to the same figure • symmetry: a rule for figure- ground assignment stating that symmetrical regions are more likely to be seen as figure (?) • common region: a gestalt grouping rule stating that two features will tend to group together if they appear to be part of the same larger region • connectedness: a gestalt grouping rule stating that two items will tend to group together if they are connected • ambiguous figure: a visual stimulus that gives rise to two or more interpretations of its identity or structure • Necker cube: an outline that is perceptually bi-stable. Unlike the situation with most stimuli, two interpretations continually battle for perceptual dominance • accidental viewpoint: a viewing position that produced some regularity in the visual image that is not present in the world (ex. the sides of two independent objects lining up perfectly) • figure-ground assignment: the process of determining that some regions of an image belong to a foreground object (figure) and other regions are part of the background (ground) • surroundedness: a rule for figure-ground assignment stating that if one region is entirely stating that if one region is entirely surrounded by another, it is likely that the surrounded region is the figure • relatability: the degree to which two line segments appear to be part of the same contour • heuristic: a mental shortcut • non-accidental feature: a feature of an object that is not dependent on the exact (or accidental) viewing position of the observer • global superiority effect: the finding in various experiments that the properties of the whole object take precedence over the properties of parts of the object • naive template theory: the proposal that the visual system recognizes objects by matching the neural representation o
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