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PSYB51H3 (301)
Chapter 10

chapter 10

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Matthias Niemeier

PSYB51CHAPTER 10 HEARING IN THE ENVIRONMENT Sound Localization Interaural Time Difference Interaural time difference ITD Azimuth The difference in time bw a sound arriving at The angle of a sound source on the horizontal plane relative to a point in the center of the head bw the ears one ear versus the other Azimuth is measured in degrees with 0 degrees being straight ahead The angle increase clockwise toward the right with 180 degrees being directly behind PHYSIOLOGY OF ITDs Medial superior olive MSO A relay station in the brain stem where inputs from both ears contribute to detection of the interaual time difference Interaual Level Difference Interaural level difference ILD The difference in level intensity between a sound arriving at one ear versus the other The properties of the ILD relevant for auditory localization are similar to those of the ITDSounds are more intense at the ear that is closer t the sound source and less intense at the ear farther away from the sourceThe ILD is largest at 90 and 90 degrees and it is nonexistent at 0 degrees and 180 degreesBw these two extremes the ILD generally correlates with the angle of the sound source but bc of the irregular shape of the head the correlation is not quite as great as it is with ITDs PHYSIOLOGY OF ILDsreceive both excitatory and inhibitory inputs the trapezoid body MNTB Lateral superior olive LSO A relay station in the brain stem where inputsexcitatory connections to the LSOs come fromCompetition bw excitatory and inhibitory from both ears contribute to the detection of thethe ipsilateral ear Inhibitory inputs come from inputs are what make LSOs so sensitive to interaural level difference the contralateral ear via the medial nucleus of differences in intensity across the two earsCones of Confusion Cones of confusion A region of positions in the spa
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