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Chapter 1

Chapter 1- Cognitive psychology: history, methods and paradigms

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Gabriela Ilie

PSYB57 Chapter 1- Cognitive psychology: history, methods and paradigms Cognitive Psychology (CP) is concerned with how people acquire, store, transform, use and communicate information; deals with mental life In the example from book, the cognitive processes include attention, mentally focusing on some stimulus; perception, interpreting sensory information to yield meaningful information; and pattern recognition, classifying a stimulus in a known category Memory- the storage facilities and retrieval processes of cognition; recognition (the retrieval of information in which the processor must decide whether the information presented has been previously presented before) and recall (the retrieval of information in which the processer must generate most of the information without aids) are types of memories Reasoning- used in transforming given information, called premises, into conclusions; its a special kind of thinking Problem solving- used in transforming starting information into a goal state, using specified means of solution Knowledge representation- the mental depiction, storage, and organization of information Language- a system of communication that is governed by a system of rules and can express an infinite # of propositions Decision making- the process by which an individual selects one course of action from among alternatives Much of the cognitive processing takes place rapidly and so often that we are unaware that its occurring The key challenge for all scientists is to make sure the laboratory tasks they develop really do preserve the essential workings of the processes under study Influences on the study of cognition Several ideas about certain mental abilities date back to at least Aristotle and Plato Other philosophers involved ini tracing the roots of cognitive psychology were Locke, Hume, John Stuart Mill, Descartes, George Berkeley, and Kant; they also debated the nature of the mind and knowledge, with Locke, Hume, Berkeley, and Stuart Mill www.notesolution.com
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