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PSYB57H3 (369)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2- The Brain: An overview of structure and function

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gabriela Ilie

PSYB57- Chapter 2- The Brain: An overview of structure and function Increasing number of cognitive psychologists have become interested in the functioning of the brain as the foundation for cognitive activity One of the ongoing challenges for c.p. is developing and applying methods of inquiry that can conclusively link cognitive processes to underlying neural activity Goal of cognitive neuroscience is to determine how cognitive functions are affected by damage to certain brain structures and whether its possible to recover cognitive functions following brain injury due to strokes, disease and accidents The brain grows from 0 to 350g during the prenatal period; the max. weight of the brain is 1350g, which is achieved when the individual is about 20 years old Structure of the brain Phylogenetic division: hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain Hindbrain- develops originally as one of the 3 bulges in the embryos neural tube. Structures within the hindbrain are most primitive. The brain stem (a structure consisting of the medulla and pons in the hindbrain, as well as the midbrain and certain structures of the forebrain) comprises about 4.4% of the entire weight of the brain; the cerebellum comprises an additional 10.5% The hindbrain consists of 3 major structures: the medulla oblongata- transmits information from the spinal cord to the brain and regulates life supporting functions such as breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, coughing, sneezing and vomiting. The pons also acts as a neural relay centre, facilitating the crossover of information between the left side of the body and right side of the brain and vice versa. It is also involved in balance and in the processing of both visual and auditory information The cerebellum contains neurons that coordinate muscle activity. It is one of the primitive brain structures. It also governs balance and is involved in general motor behavior and coordination Brain lesions in the cerebellum can cause irregular and jerky motions, tremors and impairment of balance and of gait. It has also been implicated in peoples ability to shift attention between visual and auditory stimuli and in dealing with temporal stimuli such as rhythm www.notesolution.com
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