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Psychology (9,695)
PSYB57H3 (366)
George Cree (102)
Chapter 2

Chapter two fron the new book

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George Cree

Chapter Two Neural Basis for CognitionUsing variety of methods and many piece of evidenceis crucial part for inference to best explanation is the methodological core of our fieldEach part of brain has its own specialized functionbehaviour thoughts and feelings almost invariably depend coordinated action of many brain regionsThe Capgras Syndrome An initial Exampledamage anywhere in brain will produce specific and sometimes highly disruptive symptoms Capgras syndrome its a rare disorder on its own but can accompanyAlzhiemiers syndrome and sometimes in elderly the disorder can result from various injuries to brainPeople w this syndrome are able to recognize the people in their world eg husband but is convinced that these people are not who they appear to beeg real husband has been kidnapped they believe thisSay there is slight diff bw impostor andreal person subtle changes in personality or appearance but others cant notice thisthis add to their bewilderment Feelings worsen w developing all sorts of paranoid suspicionssome instance they take desperate steps eg murdering the supposed impostor Researcher think the problem lies in the fact that facial recognition involve 2 separate systems in the brain one is cognitive appraisalother is more global and somewhat emotional appraisalconcordance of these 2 appraisal leads to certainty of recognition In capgras syndromethe emotional processing is disturbedhave intellectualidentification wout the famility responseeg you look like my fatherand trigger warmth in mein here you look like my father but no familiarity so must be someone elseNeural Basis for Capgras SyndromeNeuroimaging techniques produce high quality 3d pic of living brain wout disturbing brain owners PET scan suggest link bw Capgras syndrome abnormalities in several brain areas one damage is in the temporal lobe esp in right side of head Probably disrupts amygdala which serve as emotional evaluator helps to detect stimuli associated w threat or dangerfor detecting positive rewardsoessential for making judgment of looking familiar to triggering of warm feelingnd 2 half of twosystem hypothesis patients w this syndrome also have brain abnormalities in frontal lobe esp right prefrontal cortex fMRI scan of schizophrenia show diminished frontal lobes activity when experiencing hallucinations this relevant is that w damage frontal lobe in Capgras patientsare less able to keep track of what is realwhat is notwhat is plausible and what is notas result weird beliefs can emerge unchecked including delusionsWhat Do We Learn From Capgras Syndrome Evidence suggest that recognition has two separate parts1 hinges on factual knowledge2more emotional and tied to the warm sense of familiarity Amygdala disruptionexplain why there is no sense of familiarity w peopleprefrontal damage explain the crazy hypothesis Capgras patients come w to explain their skewed perception can use Capgras syndrome and other biological evidence to illuminate broader issues about the nature of the brain and of the mindOther biological evidence alsosuggests amygdala plays a central part in helping people remember the emotional events of their livesother evidence indicates that the amygdala plays a role in decisionmaking especially for decisions that rest on emotional evaluations of ones optionsemotional evaluator Capgras syndrome show that the emotional evaluator works in a fashion separate from our evaluation of factual informationo There are occasions in which someones evaluation of the facts points toward one conclusion while an emotional evaluation points toward a different conclusionIt also tell us useful stuff about intact brain functionsegIn order to recognize your father one part of brain have to have factual memory of your fatheranother to analyze visual input as you look at your fatheranother to match input to memory of our fatheranother for emotional evaluation of the inputo A different site assembles the data from all these other sites and so registers the fact that the face being inspecteddoes match the factual recollection of your fathers face and also produces a warm sense of familiarityo if the coordination among these areas is disruptedyet another area works to make sure you offer plausible hypotheses about this and not zany ones The Principal Structures of the Brainbrain weighs bw 34 pound but have roughly trillion neurons10 billion connectionsdiff part of brain perform diff jobsclinical evidencesymptoms produced by brain depend heavilyo eg 1848Phineas Gage to suffer damage in the frontmost part of his brainthis damage led to severe personality and emotional problems oeg 1861Paul Broca noted that damage in a different location on the left side of the brain led to a disruption of language skillso1911 douard Claparde reported his observations with patients who suffered from profound memory loss a loss produced by damage in still another part of the brain Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrainbrain is divided into three main structures the hindbrain the midbrain and the forebrain Hindbrainsits directly atop the spinal cord and includes several structures crucial for controlling key life
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