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Chapter 2

Chapter 2.docx

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George Cree

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Chapter 2The Neural Basis for CognitionCapgras Syndrome An Initial ExampleCapgras syndromeaccompaniments to Alzheimers syndrome sometimes observed among the elderly disorder can result from various injuries to the brainFully able to recognize the people in the world but is convinced that these people are not who they appear to be ie husband has been kidnapped and is not the real personSlight differences bw the imposter and person he has replacedsubtle changes in personality or tiny changes in appearanceCapgras sufferer may be led to desperate steps in some instances murdering the supposed imposter in an attempt to end the characle and relocate the genuine character ie one was convinced his father had been replaced by a robotLies in the fact that facial recognition involves 2 separate systems in the brain onecognitive appraisal and othermore global somewhat emotional appraisal In Capgras the latter emotional processing is disrupted leading to intellectual identification without the familiarity responseThe Neural Basis for Capgras SyndromeNeuroimaging techniques used to look on about this disorderscans suggest link bw Capgras syndrome and abnormalities in several brain areas 1 site of damage is temporal lobe particularly right side of headDamage involves amygdala that serves as emotional elevator important for detecting positive stimuliindicators for safety or indicators of available rewardsBrain abnormalities in prefrontal cortexfMRI which allows momentbymoment activity levels in different sites in living brainWhat Can We Learn From Capgras SyndromeConfirms suggestion that recognition ordinarily has 2 separate partsone with factual knowledge and one thats emotionalDamage to amygdala is likely to be reason why Capgras patients experience no sense of familiarity when they look at faces they know quite wellCapgras syndrome suggests that amygdala plays crucial role in supporting the feeling of familiarityThe Principal Structures of the BrainPhineas Gagesuffer damage in frontmost part of brainleads to severe personality and emotional problemsPaul Broca noted damage in different locationleft side of braindisruption of language skillsEduoard Claparede reported observations w patients who suffered from profound memory lossHindbrain Midbrain ForebrainHindbrainAtop of spinal cord includes several structures crucial key life functions ie heartbeat breathing essential role in maintaining the bodys overall toneCerebellum Coordination of bodily movements and balance spatial reasoning discriminating sounds and integrating input received form various sensory systemsHindbrain Coordinating our movements ie skilled prcised movements of our eyes relay auditory information from earsforebrainForebrain Only outer surface of forebrain is cortex 3 mm thick wrinklesconvolutions longitudinal fissure that separates cerebral hemispheresCentral fissure divides frontal lobe from parietal lobesBottom edge of frontal lobe marked by lateral fissure below this is temporal lobesConnected to parietal and temporal lobes are occipital lobes
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