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PSYB57H3 (369)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Textbook

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gabriela Ilie

Memory Structures Chapter 5 Encoding acquiring information Retrieval calling to mind of previously stored information Types of Memory Modal model of memory assumes that information is received, processed and stored differently for each kind of memory Unattended information is stored briefly in sensory memory Attended information is held in short-term memory (STM) 20-30 seconds Information needed for longer periods of time is transferred to long-term memory (LTM) Sensory Memory Visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, gustatory Two types of sensory memory: icon and echo (Neisser) The Icon We often perceive things as lasting longer than they occurred S D F G P W H J X C V N Sperling participants could only recall 5 of the 12 letters when the letters were shown briefly (whole-report method) Partial report technique o Participants would only need to recall a single row of the display but would not know which row until after the display is shown www.notesolution.com o Auditory tone is used to cue the participants what row they had to repeat o 912 letters are available in sensory information Only if tone is presented immediately after display If delayed by 1 second level of recall is 412 Icon brief visual memory The icon can be erased if other stimuli are presented immediately after the icon MASKING Cueing by category or phonological sound is nearly impossible (Ex. Name all the letters that rhyme with B) Icon is only visual The Echo Participants are given are four-eared listening task o Four channels of information (strings of letters) from different locations o Participants are asked to report all the letters they heard o Each participant also held a board with four lights on it Each light corresponds to one of the channels and the participants only report letters of that particular channel Participants could report more letters in partial reports Information is stored briefly Crowder echoic memory has a larger capacity than iconic memory > 20 seconds Suffix effect when there is an auditory cue difficult to remember the last few items o Recall cue (suffix) functions as an auditory mask o No effect if cue is a beeptonevisual cue The more similar the suffix is to the item on the list, thereater the suffix effect Sensory memories are modality specific o Visual sensory memory contains visual information, etc www.notesolution.com
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