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Canada (158,072)
Psychology (9,549)
PSYB57H3 (369)
George Cree (102)
Chapter 10

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University of Toronto Scarborough
George Cree

Chapter 10Language The Organization of LanguageLanguage is highly organized with patterns in the way that various ideas are expressedIdeas are typically expressed in sentencescoherent sequences of words that express the intended meaning of a speakerSentences are composed of phraseswordsmorphemes smallest language until that carry meaningMorphemes are units that can stand alone and refer to particular objects or ideas or actions some morphemes get bound onto free morphemes and add information for interpretation ie ed sPeople can combine and recombine units to produce novel utterances assembling phonemes to new morphemes or assembling words into new phrasesPhonology The Production of SpeechAir flows quietly out of lungs through larynx and up through nose and mouth if airflow is interrupted or altered this allows human to produce wide range of difference soundsVocal foldscords WI larynx there are 2 flaps of muscular tissue can be opened and closed to produce buzzing sort of vibrationvoicingTo produce sound place tongue tip near roof of mouth sound is sound of air rushing through narrow gap you createdIf gap is elsewhere a different sound resultsManner of productioncategorizing speech sounds based on how airflow is restricted Distinguish sounds that are voicedwith coal folds vibratingplace of articulationie close lips to make bilabial sound like p and bplace top teeth close to your bottom lip and produce labiodental sounds like f and cin English features are combined and recombined to produce 40 different phonemesThe Complexity of Speech PerceptionFeatures of speech production correspond to what listeners hear when listening to speechreflects errors people make when trying to understand speech in noisy environment st 1 step prior to phoneme identification is slice stream into appropriate segmentsspeech segmentationCoarticulation In producing speech one does not utter one phenome at a time they OVERLAP allows FASTER FLUENT speech BUT cant point to a specific acoustical pattern and is different in different contexts
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