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PSYB64H3 (201)
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB64H3
Professor
Janelle Leboutillier
Semester
Summer

Description
PSYB64 Chapter 1 Biological Psychology Scope and Outlook What is Biological Psychology biological psychology the study of the biological bases of psychological processes and behaviouraka behavioural neuroscience the field of study concerned with the ways in which nervous sys activity manifests in behaviour neuroscience the study of the nervous sysFive Viewpoints Explore the Biology of Behaviour 1 Describing behaviour 2 Studying the evolution of behaviour 3 Observing the development of behaviour and its biological charac over the life span 4 Studying biological mechanisms of behaviour 5 Studying the applications of biological psychology TABLE 11 pg 5 Behaviour can be Described According to Different Criteria can be described in terms of detailed acts or processes or in terms of results or functionsdescription must be precise and reveal the essential features of the behaviour using accurately defined terms and units We Compare Species to Learn How the Brain and Behaviour Have Evolved 2 emphasesthe continuity of behaviour and biological processes among species because common ancestryspecies specific differences in behaviour and biology that have evolved as adaptations to diff envirconserved in the context of evo referring to a trait that is passed on from a common ancestor to 2 or more descendant speciesThe Body and Behaviour Develop Over the Life Span ontogeny the process by which an indiv changes in the course of its lifetimethat is grows up and grows oldobserving the way in which a particular behaviour changes during ontogeny may give us clues to its functions and mechanismsBiological Mechanisms Underlie all Behaviour the history of a species tells us the evolutionary determinants of its behaviourwe regard the organism as a machine made up of neurons the basic unit of the nervous sys main aim in biological psychology is to examine body mechanisms that make particular behaviours possible Research can be Applies to Human Problems a major goal of biological psychology is to use research findings to improve the health and well being of humans and other animals Three Approaches Relate Brain and Behaviour somatic intervention an approach to finding relations bw body variables and behavioural variables that involves manipulating body structure or function and looking for a resultant change in behaviourit is the inde variable and the behavioural affect is the depen variable PG 7 BOX 11 We Are All Alike We Are All Different ex of somatic intervention administering a hormone in some animals but not others and comparing their behaviour a part of the brain being electrically stimulatedconnection bw 2 parts of the nervous sys is cutbehavioural intervention an approach to finding relations bw body variables and behavioural variables that involves intervening in the behaviour of an organisms and looking for resultant changes in body structure or functionbehaviour is the inde variable and the change in the body is the depen variable ex of behavioural interventionputting 2 adults of opposite sex together may lead to increased hormone secretions correlation the covariation of 2 measuresno causal relationshipshows that 2 variables are linked the relationship bw the brain and body are reciprocalNeural Plasticity Behaviour Can Change the Brain the brains of an English speaking child and French speaking child are different experience has been shown to affect the number or size of neurons or number and size of connections bw neuronsneuroplasticity the ability of the brain to change in response to experience or the envir dendritic spines change shape in secondsBiological and Social Psychology are Related other indiv can have an effect on the physical structure of your brain ie going to class and learning something alters you brainexperiment by Cooketook male rats just weaned from their mothers and put them either in a cage alone or in one with other males to play with and found that the region in the brain that processes odour was smaller in the lone male rat social experience affects the brain structure experiment where ppl were asked to put their hand in hot water those who were led to believe the water was Very hot had more activation in the brain than did other subjectsit affected the magnitude of the brain responseeven though the stimulus was the same in most cases biological and social factors continuously interact to affect each otherbiological psychologys fascination with neural plasticity sets it apart from other neurosciencesBiological Psychologists use Several Levels of Analysis levels of analysis the scope of experimental approachesie looking at molecules nerve cells brain regions social environments reductionism the scientific strategy of breaking a sys down into increasingly smaller parts in order to understand it in all fields diff prob are carried to diff levels of analysisNeuroscience Contributes to our Understanding of Psychiatric Disorders 15 ppl around the world suffer from a psychiatric disordermental disorders are both socially and individually costly WHO estimates that 15 of all disease burden is due to mental disorders Animal Research Makes Vital Contributions 93 of mammals used in research are lab reared rodentsresearchers have an obligation to minimize discomfort of their animal subjectsThe History of Research on the Brain and Behaviour Begins in Antiquity only recently have scientists recognized the central role of the brain in controlling behaviour the past emphasis have been on the heart ie the heart is where Aristotle located mental capacities Hippocrates was one of the first to identify the brain as the centre of mental capacities the Greek physician Herophilus advanced our knowledge of the nervous sys by dissecting bodies of animals and ppl Galen reported behavioural changes caused by injuries in gladiatorsRenaissance Scientists Began to Understand Brain Anatomy Da Vinci laid the foundations for anatomical drawings which included portions of the nerves and the brain renaissance anatomists saw that the brain had an extraordinary shapeRenee Descartes proposed the concept of spinal reflexes and a neural pathway for themhe suggested that that the 2 come into contact in the pineal gland in the brain which he selected because is a single structure not located symmetrically in 2 hemis and he believed it only existed in humansnotion of dualism the notion promoted by Descartes that the mind is subject only to spiritual interactions while the body is subject only to material interactionsbiological psychologists reject this idea and say that all processes in the mind can be understood as physical processes thThe Concept of Localization of Function Arose in the 19 Century by the end of the 1600s Thomas Willis convinced educated ppl in the Western world that the brain is the organ that coordinates and controls behaviour phrenology the belief that bumps on the skull reflect enlargements of the brain regions responsible for certain behavioural faculties was a popular view at this time and elaborated on the idea of WillisPaul Broca in the 1860s argued that language ability was not a property of the entire brain but rather localized in a restricted brain region brocas area a theme emerging in this era was the search for distinguishing differences among brain regions on the basis of structure and the effort to relate diff kinds of behaviour to diff brain regions 1890 William James signalled the beginnings of a modern approach to biological psychology who saw things such as consciousness as being a property of the nervous sys Box 12 Is Bigger Better The Case of the Brain and IntelligenceGalton attempted to find a correlation bw head size and intelligencebut he should have been looking at brain size with the invention of non invasive techniques to visualize the brain and better IQ tests it was possible to see the relationship bw brain size and intelligence
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