Textbook Notes (368,432)
Canada (161,877)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB64H3 (201)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14.docx

4 Pages
62 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB64H3
Professor
Janelle Leboutillier
Semester
Summer

Description
14 | EMOTION, REWARD, AGGRESSION, AND STRESS Emotion The Evolution of Emotion - Charles Darwin emotional expression evolved=beneficial change=improve chances of survival - emotion contributes to general arousal –when brain perceives situation requiring actionemotion provide arousal needed to trigger response - emotions manage approach and withdrawal behaviours relative to particular environmental stimuli - enhance survival by helping us communicate –nonverbal communication: use of facial expressions, gestures, and body language to communicate ideas and feelings Expression and Recognition of Emotion Controlling Facial Expression - pay most attention to facial expressions - movement of human face controlled by two cranial nerves: facial (VII-superficial muscles), & trigeminal (V-deeper muscles) - figure 14.2, p.404 –facial nerves originate in two facial nuclei: cranial nerve nuclei, located on either side of midline in pons  don’t communicate directly w/ each other  receive input from primary motor cortex (located in precentral gyrus of frontal lobe, serveral subcortical motor areas) - upper third of face controlled by ipsilateral and contralateral facial nerves; lower third two thirds controlled primarily by contralateral facial nerve - two major pathways control facial expression 1) input from motor cortex, primarily responsible for voluntary expression 2) subcortical system, primarily responsible for spontaneous expression Biological Influences on Emotional Expression - figure 14.4, p.406 –major emotional expressions universal across human cultures - children’s capacities for emotional expression and recognition develop at fairly regular timeline  figure 14.5, p.407 Environmental Influences on Emotion - presence of others influences intensity of emotional expression Can We Spot a Liar? - ways liars slip up: stumbles verbally, tend to stiffen head and upper body, nod head less frequently, don’t use hand gestures as much as w/ telling truth, inappropriate smiling and laughing result from nervousness, feet begin swinging - polygraph: lie-detector test based on measures of autonomic arousal  figure 14.6, p.408 –third of innocent=guilty, quarter of guilty=innocent  reflect arousal –innocent could be aroused out of fear, lack of arousal in antisocial=appears innocent when guilty  typically not admitted to courtrooms in US - future detections of brain activation during lying; “brain fingerprinting” using EEG recordings Theories of Emotion The James-Lange Theory - theory of emotion in which a person’s physical state provides cues for the identification of an emotional state - figure 14.7, p.409 –study on Capilano Canyon Bridge - variation of this theory suggests facial expressions affect way we feel  intentionally making facial movements=stimulate physical responses similar to spontaneous emotional expression  figure 14.8, p.410 - imitating facial expressions may contribute to empathy: ability to relate to feelings of another person - catharsis: relief of tension through expression of emotion –research shows it would intensify rather than reduce feelings The Cannon-Bard Theory - theory of emotion in which simultaneous activation of physical responses and recognition of subjective feelings occur independently The Schachter-Singer Theory - theory of emotion in which general arousal leads to cognitive assessment of context, which in turn leads to identification of an emotional state - a weakness: assumption that physiological states not uniquely associated w/ specific emotions Contemporary Theories of Emotion - physical responses associated w/ an emotion range from specific to ambiguous - initialy specificity of physical response=different pathways and cognitive responses - somatic marker: association formed between stimuli and resulting patterns of physical activation  stimulus processed by sensory cortex if immediately present, or hippocampus if remembered  activate structures involved w/ emotion  mssgs sent to autonomic nervous system and higher lvls  somatosensory cortex encodes entire pattern of exp. as somatic marker  ventromedial prefrontal cortex forms associations between somatic markers and facts about situations that elcited them  if same circumstances appear=brain reactivate somatic marker Biological Correlates of Emotion The Autonomic Nervous System - participates in general arousal w/ emotional states - sympathetic division=fight-or-flight, parasympathetic division=resting activities - answers primarily to hypothalamus –directly or by nucleus of solitary tract (in medulla) - autonomic responses associated w/ negative emotions generally stronger than those associated w/ positive emotions  differences in autonomic correlates between two positive states or two negative states more difficult The Amygdala - Klüver-Bucy syndrome: collection of smptoms, including tameness, extreme sexual behaviour, and oral exploration, results from damage to temporal lobes, and amygdala in particular  emotional changes in monkeys points to amygdala –figure 14.10, p.414 - lesioned amygdala  bilateral damage=usually shows reduced emotionality (esp. fear, anxiety, and aggression)  figure 14.11, p.415 –S.M. unable to identify or draw “fear” faces, when told to pay attention to eyes=able to identify fear  those w/ autism=difficulties identifying emotions (esp. fear) –abnormality of amygdala - “fear circuit”  pathway connecting amygdala w/ thalamus (receives input from most sensory systems en route to cortex)=provides rapid evaluation fo emotional significance of stimulus - classical conditioning damage=interrupts previously learned fear responses & prevents further learning  independ
More Less

Related notes for PSYB64H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit