Textbook Notes (368,432)
Canada (161,877)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB64H3 (201)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Janelle Leboutillier

14 | EMOTION, REWARD, AGGRESSION, AND STRESS Emotion The Evolution of Emotion - Charles Darwin emotional expression evolved=beneficial change=improve chances of survival - emotion contributes to general arousal –when brain perceives situation requiring actionemotion provide arousal needed to trigger response - emotions manage approach and withdrawal behaviours relative to particular environmental stimuli - enhance survival by helping us communicate –nonverbal communication: use of facial expressions, gestures, and body language to communicate ideas and feelings Expression and Recognition of Emotion Controlling Facial Expression - pay most attention to facial expressions - movement of human face controlled by two cranial nerves: facial (VII-superficial muscles), & trigeminal (V-deeper muscles) - figure 14.2, p.404 –facial nerves originate in two facial nuclei: cranial nerve nuclei, located on either side of midline in pons  don’t communicate directly w/ each other  receive input from primary motor cortex (located in precentral gyrus of frontal lobe, serveral subcortical motor areas) - upper third of face controlled by ipsilateral and contralateral facial nerves; lower third two thirds controlled primarily by contralateral facial nerve - two major pathways control facial expression 1) input from motor cortex, primarily responsible for voluntary expression 2) subcortical system, primarily responsible for spontaneous expression Biological Influences on Emotional Expression - figure 14.4, p.406 –major emotional expressions universal across human cultures - children’s capacities for emotional expression and recognition develop at fairly regular timeline  figure 14.5, p.407 Environmental Influences on Emotion - presence of others influences intensity of emotional expression Can We Spot a Liar? - ways liars slip up: stumbles verbally, tend to stiffen head and upper body, nod head less frequently, don’t use hand gestures as much as w/ telling truth, inappropriate smiling and laughing result from nervousness, feet begin swinging - polygraph: lie-detector test based on measures of autonomic arousal  figure 14.6, p.408 –third of innocent=guilty, quarter of guilty=innocent  reflect arousal –innocent could be aroused out of fear, lack of arousal in antisocial=appears innocent when guilty  typically not admitted to courtrooms in US - future detections of brain activation during lying; “brain fingerprinting” using EEG recordings Theories of Emotion The James-Lange Theory - theory of emotion in which a person’s physical state provides cues for the identification of an emotional state - figure 14.7, p.409 –study on Capilano Canyon Bridge - variation of this theory suggests facial expressions affect way we feel  intentionally making facial movements=stimulate physical responses similar to spontaneous emotional expression  figure 14.8, p.410 - imitating facial expressions may contribute to empathy: ability to relate to feelings of another person - catharsis: relief of tension through expression of emotion –research shows it would intensify rather than reduce feelings The Cannon-Bard Theory - theory of emotion in which simultaneous activation of physical responses and recognition of subjective feelings occur independently The Schachter-Singer Theory - theory of emotion in which general arousal leads to cognitive assessment of context, which in turn leads to identification of an emotional state - a weakness: assumption that physiological states not uniquely associated w/ specific emotions Contemporary Theories of Emotion - physical responses associated w/ an emotion range from specific to ambiguous - initialy specificity of physical response=different pathways and cognitive responses - somatic marker: association formed between stimuli and resulting patterns of physical activation  stimulus processed by sensory cortex if immediately present, or hippocampus if remembered  activate structures involved w/ emotion  mssgs sent to autonomic nervous system and higher lvls  somatosensory cortex encodes entire pattern of exp. as somatic marker  ventromedial prefrontal cortex forms associations between somatic markers and facts about situations that elcited them  if same circumstances appear=brain reactivate somatic marker Biological Correlates of Emotion The Autonomic Nervous System - participates in general arousal w/ emotional states - sympathetic division=fight-or-flight, parasympathetic division=resting activities - answers primarily to hypothalamus –directly or by nucleus of solitary tract (in medulla) - autonomic responses associated w/ negative emotions generally stronger than those associated w/ positive emotions  differences in autonomic correlates between two positive states or two negative states more difficult The Amygdala - Klüver-Bucy syndrome: collection of smptoms, including tameness, extreme sexual behaviour, and oral exploration, results from damage to temporal lobes, and amygdala in particular  emotional changes in monkeys points to amygdala –figure 14.10, p.414 - lesioned amygdala  bilateral damage=usually shows reduced emotionality (esp. fear, anxiety, and aggression)  figure 14.11, p.415 –S.M. unable to identify or draw “fear” faces, when told to pay attention to eyes=able to identify fear  those w/ autism=difficulties identifying emotions (esp. fear) –abnormality of amygdala - “fear circuit”  pathway connecting amygdala w/ thalamus (receives input from most sensory systems en route to cortex)=provides rapid evaluation fo emotional significance of stimulus - classical conditioning damage=interrupts previously learned fear responses & prevents further learning  independ
More Less

Related notes for PSYB64H3

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.