Textbook Notes (363,229)
Canada (158,274)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Chapter 2 [NEUROANATOMY] Main Teaching Points: Module 2.1: Cells of the Nervous System 1. Neurons and Glia: Structure and Function 2. Communication within the Neuron: The Action Potential 3. Communication between Neurons: The Synapse 4. Neurotransmitters Module 2.2: The Nervous System 1. Positional Terms 2. Divisions of the Nervous System 3. The Spinal Cord 4. Divisions of the Brain 5. Connections between the Two Halves of the Brain 6. Cranial Nerves 7. Blood Supply 8. Protections Module 2.1 Cells of the Nervous System Neurons N Communicators N Reacts and responds to stimuli; basis of behavior N Learns and stores information about their external environments Glia J support functions Neurons and Glia: Structure and Function Gross Anatomy of the Neuron N -}L[ZZZ]Z o}Zoo}]ZL ]}[email protected]} ]7 }L LLZK]Z]2LoZJ to collect information and send it on (or not) Parts of the Neuron N Dendrites J receives incoming information from other neurons N Soma (Cell Body) J contains genetic machinery and most of the metabolic machinery needed for common cellular functions N Axon J sends neural information to other neurons N Information is passed from the axon to the dendrite through the synapse Presynaptic J events that occur in the axon Postsynaptic J events that occur in the dendrite 1. Dendrites Increases the surface area available for the reception of signals from the axons of other neurons Extent of branching of the dendrites gives an indication of the number of connections or synapses it makes with incoming axons Information is sent to the rest of the neuron in the form of an electrical charge J action potential www.notesolution.com Chapter 2 [NEUROANATOMY] Are often covered with tiny spines which grow and retract in response to experience J spines can form synapses with other neurons 2. Axon Information sender Only one axon neuron A long thin fiber or wire that can pass its message along to many different cells simultaneously Covered with myelin J helps to speed rate of information transferred and ensures that the message gets to the end of the axon Internal Anatomy of the Neuron N Plasma membrane J bilayer of continuous sheets of phospholipids the separate the internal environment from the outside; proteins and channels allow passage of materials N Nucleus J genetic processes; packages and controls the genetic information contained in DNA N Ribosomes & Endoplasmic Reticulum J Synthetic processes N Mitochondria J metabolic processes Structure and Function of Neurons Classification of Neurons: 1. Patterns of Branching Unipolar neurons J one process emanating from cell body Bipolar neurons J two process Multipolar J numerous processes extending from cell body Interneurons J neurons with no axons or very short axons; integrates information within a structure rather than sending information between structures 2. Types of signals they process Sensory Neurons J processes information elicited from sensory-type stimuli Interneurons J makes connection between cells; enables convergence and combination of behavioral resposnes Motor Neurons J conveys muscle contractions 3. Afferent neuron J brings information to CNS 4. Efferent neuron J sends information from the brain or away from a structure N Neurons vary in size, shape, and function and can shape as a result of experience Glia N Support functions N Satellite Cells J support cells outside of the brain and spinal cord 1. Astrocytes N Largest glia J star-shaped N Fills the space between neurons J results in close contact between neurons and astrocytes and can affect the growth of neurons N Blood-brain barrier J protective system that keeps the brain separate from the rest of the body N Nutritive and metabolic functions for neurons www.notesolution.com
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