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Canada (156,138)
Psychology (9,443)
PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14 - Human Brain Damage
Chapter 14 - Human Brain Damage

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Chapter 14Human Brain DamageModule 141 Causes of Brain DamageTumoursis a mass of new and abnormal tissues that is not physiologicallyA tumoursneoplasms new tissuebeneficial to in surrounding structuresSome neurological texts describe tumours as spaceoccupying lesions meaning that they are foreign objects that cause damage to the CNS by putting pressure on it and occupying space that is normally occupied by the CNSOther types of tumours damage the surrounding tissues in ways other than exerting pressure Tumours differ from 1 another in terms of what type of cell gives rise to the tumour how rapidly they grow whether they infiltrate and destroy the surrounding neural tissuesor remain encapsulated and how likely they are to recur if they are removedare not likely to recur malignant tumours are more likely to recurBenign tumours The most common types of tumours are gliomas tumours that arise formTumours Arising from Glial Cellsglial cells y There are 2 main types1 Astroctyes are tumours that arise from the growth of astrocytes They dont grow quickly and rarely malignant Some astrocytes are relatively well encapsulated the damage comes from compression of the surrounding tissues Other astrocytmas infiltrate surrounding neural tissue The prognosis of removal surgically is good provided the tumour started to grow in surgically accessible placeWhen not able to do surgery chemotherapy is typically usedare the opposite of astrocytomas They grow quickly highly malignant 2 Glioblastomas Tend to infiltrate surrounding tissues making them difficult to do something surgically without the removal of the relatively healthy surrounding neural tissuesChemotherapy is often used to treat gliobastomas 3 A less common type of glioma is medulloblastomaprimitive neuroelectrodermal tumour a highly malignant infiltrating tumour Tend to form around cerebellum and brainstem early in lifePrognosis for individuals who develop medulloblastomas tends to be relatively poor and chemotherapy is best option bc they are around brainstemsupports BASIC FUNCTIONSTumours Arising From the Meninges Meningiomas are tumours that grow out ofremain attached to the Meninges y They grow near the dura mater forming ovoid shape y Bc they grow out of tissues outside the CNS meningiomas tend to be reasonably well encapsulatedy The harmful effectstend to result from pressure applied at the tumour site and sites distal from tumour y Most types of meningiomas are usually benign but also malignant varieties of the tumour y Surgery is usually the best optionencapsulated nature and bc of location on surface of the brain
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