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PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 1

PSYB65 - Chapter 1 - Sep 13, 2010

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Chapter 1 Introduction to Neuropsychology Module 1.1: Introduction to Neuropsychology The 10% Myth There is no evidence to suggest that there is any part of your brain that you do not use. What is Neuropsychology? - Psychology study of behaviour (an attempt to describe, explain, predict, and change behaviour.) - Neuropsychology study of the relation between behaviour and the activity of the brain. - Clinical Neuropsychology branch of neuropsychology concerned with psychological assessment, management, and rehabilitation of neurological disease and injury. - Experimental Neuropsychology (referred to as cognitive neuropsychology or cognitive neuroscience) branch focuses on how human behaviour arises from brain activity, which includes explaining how patterns of behavioural impairments can be explained in terns of disruptions to the damaged neural components. Heart, Mind, and Brain: The Early History of Neuropsychology - Empedocles: the heart was the source of human behaviour, known as the cardiac or cardio- centric hypothesis. - Aristotle came to the same conclusion, and concluded that the heart was the source of thought and sensation. He argued that the brain served as a radiator, cooling the blood. Aristotle was wrong on both counts. - Hippocrates and Galen: the brain is responsible for the source of human behaviour, a view that is referred to as the cephalo-centric hypothesis or the brain hypothesis. - Early theories of brain function did not typically recognize the importance of the brain in higher cognitive functions. The brain was viewed as a passive interpreter of signals, whereas the mind was often characterized as a separate entity from the brain. The Mind-Body Problem - Rene Descartes: reflexive theory of the control of behaviour in which he described the flow of animal spirits through valvules within nervous tissue filaments. Describes how external stimuli would move the skin, releasing the animal spirits and innervating the muscles. Account for some involuntary behaviours - Rene Descartes: voluntary behaviours depended on the interface of the mechanistic body with a rational, decision-making soul. Pineal gland Selecting pineal gland based on two factors: 1. Its unitary nature - single structure along the midline of the brain 2. Surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid (believed that cavities of cerebrospinal fluid were reservoirs for the animal spirits necessary for actions) - Cerebrospinal fluid A clear fluid that supports and cleanses the brain - Rene Descartes: mind and body are separate but interacting entities, referred to as dualism. - Monism mind and body are unitary, opposed to dualism. source.doc 1 www.notesolution.com
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