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Psychology (9,697)
PSYC12H3 (298)
Chapter 1

chapter 1

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 1: Intro to Study of Stereotyping and Prejudice - Membership in a group can be restricted on basis of skills, family, etc. - By forming groups, can construct environment so that daily lives are easier. - Researchers say tendency to form groups has withstood time and evolution - Groups are basic building blocks of society. - Some disadvantages and advantages to groups - Tend to form closer ties with members of in group and reject, antagonize out group. - Even when it is a minimal group, assigned arbitrarily, still see the in group bias. - Prejudice: negative feelings about the outgroup - Stereotypes: believing that certain characteristics are associated with certain groups - Such ingroup behave may underlie more severe negative behave towards other groups. - A logical analysis of intergroup hostility suggests that there is no rational basis for disliking others just because they belong to another group. - Why si study of prejudice and stereotyping so important? -> important to understand that such negative attitudes form the basis for subsequent negative intergroup behav. - Intergroup prejudice and hostility lead to unparalleled bloodshed in Yugoslavia, Rwanda, etc. - Some fo the most intense intergroup hostility based on religious differences. - Some believe that prej and stereotyping are no longer a problem in the US. - Overt expressions of racial prej have decreased they havent disappeared. - Various motivations (why), contexts & situations (when), indiv difference variables and traits (who) and affective cognitive processes (how) that lead to prejudice. Defining Stereotyping Lippmanns Stereotype - stereotype derived from word meaning a printing process which fixed casts of material are reproduced. - Journalist Walter Lippmann used word stereotype to describe tendency people think of someone or something in similar terms (similar attributes) based on a common feature shared by each. - Lippmann: We all have pictures inside our heads of outside world that are like templates into which we try to simplify sometimes confusing info we receive from the world. - Stereotypes tell us what social info is important to perceive and to disregard in our enviro. - Tends to confirm preexisting stereotypes by paying attention to stereotype-consistent info and disregard info that is inconsistent. - Content of stereotypes determined largely by culture in which person lives. Stereotyping: From Bad to Neutral - Number of ways that researchers have defined stereotype over the decades - Soon researchers saw stereotyping as a negative, lazy way of perceiving social groups. - Was seen as an outward indicator of irrational, nonanalytic cognition - Some thought it as rigid thinking and external sign of moral defectiveness. - Began to move away from inclusion of assessments of the morality or correctness of the stereotype or stereotyper. - Nature of Prejudice, Allport defined stereotype: a stereotype is an exaggerated belief associated with a category. - Others began to argue that stereotyping should be examined as a normal psych process. www.notesolution.com
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