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PSYC12H3 (298)
Chapter 1

PSYC12 Textbook chapter 1

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Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study of Stereotyping and Prejudice - Groups are not unique to humans. Some researchers theorize that the tendency to form groups is such a basic part of the nature of animals, including humans, and has conveyed survival benefits so successful that it has (e.g. fighting off predators, raising offspring successfully) withstood time and evolution. - Disadvantages and complications that groups bring: Mate competition Mate retention Tend to form closer ties to members of their own group, and they tend to be suspicious and rejecting of members of other groups. Tend to favour their own groups (called in-groups) over other groups to which they do not belong (out-groups). Randomly assigning people to group A or group B is an example of minimal group; people tend to show preference for members of their own group over those of other groups. - They form the basis for negative feelings about other groups (prejudice) and for believing that certain characteristics are associated with other groups (forming stereotypes) often because out-group members are perceived to be antithetical to the in-groups welfare or values - Evolutionary psychology suggests, in-group preferences and hostility toward out groups are adaptive, and therefore innate, there is little we can do to avoid prejudice and stereotyping. - Why is the study of prejudice and stereotyping important? A need to understand the negative influence such thinking has on the thoughts, feelings, and behaviour of people in their daily lives, and how they relate to the targets of their prejudice, it is important to understand that such negative attitudes form the basis for subsequent negative intergroup behaviour. [Wars] - Some believe that there is a huge decline in prejudice and stereotyping in the U.S., but its just that overt expressions of racial prejudice and intergroup hatred have declined dramatically, racial prejudice and stereotypes have by no means disappeared. DEFINING STEREOTYPING - LIPPMANNS STEREOTYPE Originally derives from a term to describe a printing process in which fixed casts of material are reproduced. Lippmann used the word to describe the tendency of people to think of someone or something in similar terms that is, as having similar attributes based on a common feature shared by each. Lippmann: We all have pictures in our heads (p.3) of the world outside and that their representations are more likely templates into which we try to simplify the sometimes-confusing information we receive from the world. 1 www.notesolution.com
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