PSYC12 CHAPTER 1
-Stereotype is derived from a word to describe printing process where fixed casts of
material are reproduced.
-now used as a word meaning: a tendency to think of someone or something in
similar term (having similar attributes) based on a common shared feature.
>stereotypes tell us what social info is important to perceive and to ignore in our
enviro. We tend to pay attention to stereotype consistent information and ignoring
things that go against our stereotype
-cultural stereotype: shared/community wide patterns of beliefs. Individual
stereotype: beliefs held by one person about the characteristics of a group
>your cultural stereotype about the group might not be the same as your
individual stereotype about the same group.
-an attitude (evaluation of some object, can be good or bad) has 3 components:
behavioural, affective and cognitive. Some people say stereotypes represent only the
cognitive portion of any intergroup attitude.
>affect corresponds to prejudice and behaviour, to discrimination (negative
behaviour toward an individ based on their membership in a group.
-early theorists defined prejudice by its affective basis, can be felt or expressed,
-then it was regarded as an evaluation of a stimulus, so its essentially an attitude. So
it has the 3 components
>affective (e.x anger), cognitive (beliefs linking hostility to outgrpu) and
-best predictor of negative outgroup prejudice is lack of positive emotions about
-prejudice depends on match or lack of between the social role into which the
person is trying to fit and the beliefs of the perceiver about the attributes required
for success in that role
>e.x that role is highly valued (e.x Caucasian) the typical member of that group
will tend to be viewed only slightly more positive than a role-incongruent (black
person) individ in that position.
-Self-categorization theory: people view themselves as a member of a social
category/group (like racial, national, ethnic, religious etc). intergroup interactions
will make salient particular group categorizations that depend on the nature of
>e.x when an American interacts with a French person, their categorization as a
us citizen is most salient
-an appraisal: is a set of cognitions that are attached to a specific emotion. Emotion
is triggered by an assessment of the adaptive significance and self relevance of the
people and events in one’s enviro.
-subtyping: prejudiced person maintains negative affect for the group but creates s
separate category for specific members (friends, coworkers etc)..
-Prejudice: occurs between groups, involve a + or – evaluation of a group, is a biased
perception of a group and is based on real or imagined characteristics of the group. -idea that stereotypes+prejudice should be related was supported by the Balance
Theory (one’s attitudes, behave, and affect toward another person should be
cognitively consistent or you experience imbalance).
>e.x when you say one thing and do another, you feel hypocritical. Balance theory
says for e.x you’d feel dumb have positive attitudes about lawyers but tell negative
jokes about them.
-widely regarded as the first empirical study of stereotyping, Katz and Braly: looked
at the content of the stereotypes that Whites had regarding 10 diff ethnic groups.
Participants were given a list of adjectives and asked to specify which adjectives
were associated with various ethnic groups.
-Hovland found that persuasion messages were more likely to be successful when
directed toward a certain type of audience. i.e people who were less educated,
distracted and lower in self esteem, they were persuaded more easily.
-theories of diff researchers and other learning theorists suggested that a primary
reason that certain attitudes are formed/maintained is that the expression of such
attitudes was followed by reinforcing events like social approval
-Stereotyping can be explained by Thorndike’s Law of Effect: any behaviour that is
followed by a positive event will be more likely to be performed again.
-other researchers say prejudice/stereotyping arose out of feelings of