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Canada (162,066)
Psychology (9,696)
PSYC12H3 (298)
Chapter 7

Chapter 7 PSYC12

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Michael Inzlicht

Stereotyping and prejudice occur in a dynamic social context involving the perceiver and target reacting to each otheroTwo way street involves feedback from target that often confirms expectations of perceiver with perceivers behaviour often then confirming the expectations of the targetSocial StigmaMany people try to fit in with the majority so they will not be singled out for ridicule or treated negatively by others Stigma is the unusual characteristics that engenders negative evaluationsoStigma makes individuals as deviant flawed spoiled or generally undesirableoStigma encompasses more familiar situations where prejudice is shown ie racial religious gender age sexual orientation Can also cover any physical behavioural psychological marker that elicits negative evaluations from societyo3 types of stigma developedAbominations of body physical deformities being overweight etcBlemishes of individual character drunkennessTribal stigmas of race nation and religion prejudice against another raceGroup IdentificationIndividuals with external threats such as prejudice show stronger ingroup identificationoConfirmed effect in Jewish people African Americans and womenResearch found that depending on the major impact that dependent on if individual identifies with their stigma group will determine the degree which they would disassociate from the groupoHigh identifiers are more likely to associate themselves with the group especially when it has a negative image High identifiers derive much of their selfesteem from the identifications as a group memberMore likely to seek collective strategies against group threat Make it clear theyre committed loyal and in it for the long runoLow identifiers are likely to dissociate themselves from the group especially when group has negative image Feel no special affinity towardderive no selfesteem from their groupThey seem prepared to let the group fall apartThus theyre more individualistic and opportunistic in that they will only identify themselves with the group when it would positively affect their social identity Stereotype Threat Individuals in ST groups often find themselves vigilant about not behaving in ways that confirm ST about ones groupoDoing so will lead to support the legitimacy of ST in the eyes of others and even if the individuals own view oOccasionally people in ST groups will engage in performancelimiting behaviour practicing less b4 an athletic event study less before an exam etc so provide them with a ready excuse for their expected poor performance on the ST relevant dimension This is known as stereotype threat It seems that if youre aware of ST and behave in ways to disconfirm it you would behaviour in counter ST fashion and that would be it oBUT for many ST the negative implications of confirming the ST are important enough they can impair ones ability to behaviour in the counterST wayoPeoples anxiety and possibly confirming the ST can be so debilitating that it might impair ones performance on the ST dimension which has the paradoxical effect of confirming the STResearch shows that theres a drop in working memory capacity ST threat is more likely to occur in people whom strongly identify with the group which ST exists and in individuals who are selfconscious of their stigmatized status oThese people fair worse than their nonthreaten counterparts Ex Black people show higher blood pressure than nonthreaten counterparts oEg Black people and their academics Shows that AA average about 15 points less compared to white people Most researchers agree it could be due to social economic disadvantages cultural biases embedded into standardized intelligence test and discrimination and prejudice that they face from others Also it was suggested that ST threat is the difference in performance between AA and white people even if AA has all of these disadvantages taken away AA that were told that they would do a difficult verbal test and it would be a measure of their intellectual ability compared to those who were not told this they underperformed compared to white people intellectual ability but performed as well as them in the nondisagnostic condition By making ST salient impaired performance of AA on task even in nondisgnostic conditions oThis disparity might also be due to stereotype lift in addition to ST threatMeaning nonstigmatized people seem to experience a performance enhancement when they engage in a downward comparison between themselves and a member of a ST outgroupIt was found that those whom were higher in ST vulnerability the tendency to expect perceive and be influenced by ST about ones social category tended to be the least in touch with the quality of their performance on a ST taskoThey were not able to accurately predict what they knew relative to demands of taskoAs a result of this inaccuracy their academic ST domain related selfconfidence was subject to stronger fluctuationsResearch found similar results to women at the ST that theyre not good at mathoWhen women though math test was diagnostic they performed poorly compared to their male counterparts and vice versa
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