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PSYC12_ch2.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC12H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYC12Chapter 2 Why we categorizeHumans have a limitedcapacity cognitive system that cannot simultaneously process all the available information in our social environmentAristotles principle of associationwe assume that things that are similar on the basis of one feature or because they occur together will likely have other notable similarities on a number of dimensionsOnly when the perceiver wants to quickly evaluate the target do stereotypes become activated as a useful means of arriving at an attitude toward the target Ingroups and outgroupsWe think of outgroup members as all alike outgroup homogeneity and we think of ingroup members as individuals who share one or two common features ingroup biasMinimal groupsgroups that have no meaningful basis for membership Social LearningWhen children learn from parents either directly or indirectly through observationChildhood Intergroup Contact people who had more interracial contact showed least amount of stereotypingValue Transmission in Families biggest factor was RightWing Authoritarianism RWA where low RWA kids and high RWA kids who saw their parents as responsive there when they needed them were similar to parents but high RWA kids who saw parents as unresponsive and demanding were not similar to their parentsInfluence of Stereotypes on Cognition in Children both majoritygroup children and minoritygroup children held more positive attitudes toward the majoritygroup and more negative attitudes toward the minoritygroup minoritygroup children show stereotype threatStereotypes and Prejudice in the Media Blacks as perpetrators is very overrepresented in the media leading us to believe that they commit more crimes Implicit TheoriesImplicit theoriesbeliefs and heuristics that guide ones processing of social information and helps us evaluate othersEntity theoristsones personality traits are FIXED cant be changedIncremental theoristsones personality traits are FLEXIBLE can be modifiedEntity theorists are more likely to use stereotypes The Efficiency ofStereotypes
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