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Canada (158,054)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYC14H3 (214)
Sisi Tran (101)


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Sisi Tran

Ch7: motivation Motivations for self-enhancement and self-esteem Self-enhancement: motivation to view oneself +vely Self-serving biases: tendencies for ppl to exaggerate how good they think they are ~ americans tend to have a high level of self enhancement and self-serving bias ppl are motivated to try a lot of strategies to make themselves look better: o Downward social comparison: comparing your performance with someone who is doing even worse than you o Upward social comparison: comparing your performance with someone who does better than you ~ makes your performance look bad o Compensatory self-enhancement: acknowledging your poor grades in class but compensating it with your excellent clarinet playing skill ~ recruiting other +ve thoughts abt yourself o Discounting: reducing the perceived importance of the domain where you performed poorly. ~ eg: getting a bad grade in chem but thinking abt “who cares abt chem? Im not becoming a chemist” o External attribution: attributing the cause of our actions to sth outside ourselves, in contrast to internal attribution ~ eg: “prof was impossible to understand” o Bask in the reflected glory: when we emphasize our connection to successful groups and making ourselves feel better by sharing others’ success There is evidence of cultural variation in +ve self-views even at a young age ~ European-Americans had more +ve statements abt themselves as compared to Native or Mexican-Americans ~ Americans list more successes than failures whereas Japanese had little success memories and more failures to list ~ when failing a task, NA tend to discount the imp of the task whereas Japanese view the task as even more imp ~ NA make external attribution for their failure whereas Japanese makes external attribution for their successes ~ the endowment effect(valuing objects more once you own them) is stronger in western samples than in East Asian ones ~ studies may not be studying ppl’s “true” feelings but are looking into cultural differences for describing oneself Predestination: before we were born, It was already decided who was going to heaven or hell o +ve correlation btwn independence/individualism and self-esteem Motivations for face and self-improvement Face: the amt of social value others give you if you live up to the stds associated with your position ~ the higher your social position, the greater amt of face is available to you ~ face is more easily lost than gained ~ face is lost when someone can’t live up to their roles prevention orientation: trying to avoid bad things, trying not to lose sth; focusing on things that they don’t do well so it’ll correct/avoid a failure in future promotion orientation: trying to secure good things; strive for opportunities for advancement o in terms of tennis, chinese ppl saw the game described as opportunities to avoid a loss as more imp than opportunities to win, and the americans showed the opposite pattern o Canadians are more likely to persist on a task for which they think they are talented, whereas Japanese persisted more on tasks for which they blv they are untalented o Self-improvement: motivation adopted by East Asians where there is a desire to seek out their weaknesses and work on correcting them o Strategy to maintain/enhance face used by East Asians: purchasing brand name goods to indicate higher social status Religion and achievement motivation (go over p. 254-262) o Weber says that human behavior is interwoven with meaning – it is our interpretation of what events mean that motivates us to respond accordingly o Protestant Reformation lead to the foundation for capitalism o “calling” – each person has a unique God-given purpose to fulfill during their moral existence ~ we are God’s servants, sent to this planet to fulfill a task Agency and Control Control depends on whether we perceive our identities as changeable or stable (relates back to entity and incremental theory of the world)  Primary and secondary control Two ways we gain control of our lives: 1) primary control: it’s a strive to shape existing reality to fit their perceptions, goals or wishes ~ eg: when you want a burger, and you go to a burger joint to get yourself one – influencing the social envi to get what you want 2) secondary control: adjusting yourself with existing realities, leaving the realities unchanged but exerting control over their psychological impact ~ eg: coworkers all want to eat pizza and you feel like pizza is just what you’d want to have for lunch – your goals and desires adjuct themselves to what your envi is most likely to provide Aerobic classes study: o when asked why they chose the particular class they did, americans said it was a convenient time (i.e. they chose it when they wanted). Japanese said bc it was an appropriate level for them (i.e., they adjusted their schedules so that they would be a better fit with the class) o when the instructor initiated a difficult move, americans did their own move instead (i.e., their preferences determined their routine) and the Japanese said they
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