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Emotions ch 3.docx

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Michelle Hislher

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Emotions ch 2 The construction of emotions in the West -plato- thought emotions rise from the lover part of the mind and pervert reason -distrust was brought by Darwin who implied that in human adults, the expression of emotions are obsolete, vestiges of our evolution from the beasts and of our development from infancy -we also think emotion are the very guarantee of authenticity -appreciation became marked in Europe and America, during the historical era of romanticism -emotions came to be valued in personal life, in politics in literature and philosophy -jean Jacques rousseau published the idea that religious sensibility is based on how you feel rather than on authority or on scripture or on arguments for the existence of God -he proposed instead that education should be natural and that people’s natural emotions indicate what is right -1800 romanticism had become firmly part of western culture -it inspired poets novelist dramatists painters and musicians through art and to move readers -writing itself became a way of discovering inner emotional truths -emotions are powerful forces often at odds with more deliberate, rational thought embodied in science and codified in cultural conventions The elements of a cultural approach to emotion -values concepts and ideas about the self as expressed in art forms rituals and social practices, shape how members of a particular societies experience emotion and that these matters are not universal -emotions are both irrational and also authentic aspects of the true self are products of a particular culture -a cultural approach involves the assumption that emotions are constructed primarily by the processes of culture -how emotions are valued to how they are elicited are shaped by culture specific beliefs and practices -emotions derive from human meanings which are necessarily cultural -they are radically different across different cultures -emotions can be thought of as roles that people fulfill to play out culture specific identities and relationships -mesquita- contends that cultural approaches focus on the practice of emotion in contrast to the potential for emotion -potential means asking whether people of different cultures, would be capable of showing certain universal emotional responses in terms of experience expression and physiology -practice refers to what actually happens in people’s emotional lives -some cultures value or at least permit public expressions of anger, while other work hard to suppress -people from different cultures appear to be similar in their emotion potential especially when this potential is described at a higher level of meaning -concrete emotional realities in different cultures may widely vary The self construal approach: independent and interdependent selves -the declaration of independence prioritized the rights and freedoms of the individual -confucious emphasized the importance of knowing one’s place in society and of honoring traditions and roles of thinking of others before the self -in western societies people are concerned about their individuality -markus-self construal approach with interdependent self and independent self -independent self: the self is autonomous and separate from others, individualism, they define the self according to unique traits and preferences, it focuses on internal causes -interdependent self: self is fundamentally connected with other people, find one’s status identity and roles within the community and other collectives, one thinks of oneself as embedded within social relationships shaped by different contexts relationships and roles -independent and interdependent self construals appear to be at work in culture related differences in the evaluation of a more positive emotions -in japan amae is an emotion of interdependence arising from a kind of merged togetherness form comfort in the other person’s complete acceptance The values approach -values refer to broad principles that govern our social behavior -people from different cultures attach different priorities to values like freedom individual rights equality expressing thoughts and feelings, respect for authority -makoto means something different doing a social duty not according to inner feelings, but doing it completely with expertise without inner conflict -members of cultures that differ in the importance of specific values should experience different elicitors of emotions related to that value -in cultures where a particular value is prioritized, one should expect emotions related to that value -he suggested that the core cultural value of jealousy is invoked when something highly valued which has been hard to achieve, is threatened by and interloper -heelas- in some cultures a particular emotion is recognized has special names and is the subjet of social discussion these are hypercognized, they are emphasized in the language of the culture -certain emotions seem little noticed in some cultures these are hypocognized The epistemological approach -epistemologies are ways of knowing, they refer to the knowledge structures and theories that guide patterns of thought, affect and behavior in domain specific ways -this epistemology is based on five principles: 1. Change so that nothing is static 2. Contradiction that opposites often are consistent and both true 3. Covariation so that events are interrelated in complex field or systems 4. Compromise so that truth may lie in the synthesis of opposites 5. Context so that events occur not alone but in contexts -compared with Americans, east Asians might experience greater emotional complexity which is the simultaneous experience of contradictory emotions -east Asians more willing to endorse multiple even contradictory meanings for the complex social situations and as a result experience contradictory emotions -in experience sampling studies, students were beeped and reported their current emotions -asians are more likely than westerners Europeans students to report feeling positive and negative emotion in the particular moment -western Europeans, the mo
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