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Chapter 10

Chapter 10: Emotions and Cognition

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Gerald Cupchik

Chapter 10: Emotions and Cognition  Eadweard Mybridge: photographer with damage to his orbitofrontal cortex + killed out of jealousy  Effects on emotions and social lives; lack of information for an array of social emotions  lack of judgement/not rational; do not abide by morals, norms, and conventions  In order to function in society, our emotions need to be working in relation to each other to guide our reasoning and actions wisely; emotions influence our reasoning Passion and reason  orbitofrontal cortex processes social emotions. Dmg = lack of social judgement.  Emotions need to occur in relation to each other to wisely guide our reasoning and action  Magical transformation (Jean-Paul Sarte): emotions influence reasoning by changing how we see the world  Epicureans and Stoics (3rd century BCE): good life = emotions extirpated (erased) altogether  Emotions = lower, less sophisticated, more primitive ways of perceiving the world  Rational thought > primitive emotions  David Hume (18th century): "reason is and ought to be a slave of passion"  Emotions can be rational: 1. Emotions are based on substantive beliefs (beliefs and appraisals supporting our emotions correspond to actual events in the world)  emotions are often the product of rather complex beliefs about real events in the world 2. Emotions help individuals function effectively in the social world 3. Emotion guides cognitive processes: perception, attention, access to certain memories, and bias jud helps the individual respond to the environment in ways that we recognize as valuable aspects of our humanity Emotions prioritize thoughts, goals, and actions  notion that emotions guide cognitive processes of rational, adaptive fashion emerged within a movement known as Cognitive Science (matured in the 1960's)  Simon (1967): emotions would be necessary in any intelligent being  they set priorities among the many different goals that impinge upon individuals at any moment in time  Emotions signal conflict and redirect the individual’s actions (Aristotle & Freud)  Emotions guide action in a world that is always imperfectly known, and can never be fully controlled  They offer bridges toward rationality to make up for our incompetency of knowing a fully rational solution  Better than simply acting randomly or becoming lost in thought trying to calculate the best possible action  Oatley & Johnson-Laird: emotions involve two different kinds of signalling in the nervous system 1. A signal that occurs automatically/unconsciously (primary appraisal)  Organizational” because it (rather simply) sets the brain into a particular mode of organization, or readiness, that is specific to the particular basic emotion  Emotional priming to a phenomena 2. A signal that derives from the secondary appraisal  “Informational” because the information it carries enables us to make mental models of events and their possible causes and implications  Normally, Organizational and Informational signals occur together to produce an emotional feeling with a consciously known cause and object  Helps responses to emergent opportunities and challenges in the environment  Can be dissociated (e.g. split brain patients, antidepressants) 3 perspectives on emotions in cognitive functioning: emotions exert effects on cognition because of congruency, they can be informative, and the lead to different reasoning styles. Emotion congruence  Gordan Bower (influential memory researcher): moods and emotions are associative networks in the mind  In memory, there are pathways devoted to emotions associative links to past experiences, images, related concepts, labels (semantic network)  We should be better able to learn material that is congruent without current emotion (emotion congruence) because they are more extensively integrated into ACTIVE memory structures  More easily retrieved at the time of recall  E.g. Participants who read a story in a happy mood will remember more positive facts  sometimes memories that are incongruent with mood may be recalled better than that are congruent!  Joseph Forgas  modification of Bower’s proposal  Affect Infusion Model: emotions infuse into a cognitive task, and influence memory and judgement depending on the extent to which the task depends on complex and constructive processing, or on matters that depart from prototypes  Depend strongly on the task being performed, AKA the context Feelings as Information  Feeling as Information: assumes that emotions themselves are informative when we make judgements  two assumptions: 1. emotions provide us with rapid signal triggered by something in our environment 2. many of the judgements that we make are often too complex to review all the relevant evidence  e.g. comprehensive answer to the question of how satisfied you are with your political leader might lead you to think about current environmental policies, state of health care, etc.  therefore, rely on simpler assessment based on our current feelings  emotions are heuristics: a short cut (plan or bias) to make judgement or take action  current feelings (heuristics) used as a judgement of life satisfaction  **not valid when they attribute those feelings to a specific source (like the weather)  Depends strongly on the task being performed, AKA the context (similar to emotion congruence) Styles of Processing: different forms of reasoning, weighing evidence, and concluding.  Keith stanovich - 2 systems at work:  System 1: automatic and based on heuristics; frontal lobe dmg = too much system 2 and overthink decisions.  Derives positive emotions which use heuristics over deliberate thinking  Anger  make social judgements on others  System 2: slow and ration
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