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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC21H3
Professor
David Haley
Semester
Fall

Description
CH 7: Family: Early and Enduring Influences The Family System  Family= social unit in which adult spouses or partners and their kids share economic, social and emotional rights and respnisbilities and a sense of commitment and idneitifucation with each other  They offer the most intense and enduring of all interpersonal bonds  Families are systems for socialization= process by which parents and others teach children the standards of behavior, attitudes, skills, and motives deemed appropriate for their society  The family system- grup of people composed of interdependent members and subsystems; changes in the behavior of one member of the family affect the functioning of the other members  Changes in the behavior of one member of the family affect the functioning of the other members  Indirect effects involve a two step process: dads affect kids indirectly by modifying their relationship with their moms and which then affects childs dev and moms affect this kids indirectly modifying the quantitiy and quality of father-child interaction, which in turn affects the childs behavior kids influence the relationship between mom and dad but altering behavior of either parent  In well functioning fam, parents have a good relationship with eachother its hard to reverse the negative quality of dysfunctional family interactions because systems in general resist change  Couple system- the founding system within the family system that joins the 2 parrtners nature of this relation effects CD  Quality of couples union facilitates or hampers the quality of parenting, sibling relationships and childs dev  Mutually supportive couple= move involved with kids, competent child rearing practices, more affectionate and responsive with kids  Conflict parents= lash out at eachother with hostility = inflict problems on kids and are unlikely to develop emotionally secure attachment to parents and kids likely to become aggressive or depressed  Children’s level of distress increased as the intensity and destructiveness of their parents fights increased more fam conflict= kids became depressed, insecure, anxious and had behavior problems, poor emotion regulation and relationship difficulties  Constructive conflict between parents= less harmful effects on kid teaches kids how to negotiate conflict and resolve disagreements with ppl outside family  Children most likely to have problems if their parents expressed anger frequently, intensly, physically and without resolution  Parents in conflicting marriages= angry and intrusive parenting styles and kids dispay anger when they interact with parents  If kids perceive conflict as threatening they become anxious, depressed and withdrawm, if they perceive it as their fault they act out. If parents resolve conflict= kid less likelt ro have the prblems  Poor parental mental health= effects of parental conflict on kids functioning  As a result of exposure to conflict between their parents, kids experience emotional arousal and distress and develop a sense of emotional insecurity= later problems in social interactions  Stronger link between marital conflict and adolescnent conduct problems in fams in which mom or dads are identical twins than in fams where mom n dad are fraternal twins  Found that parental discord @ the first time predicted childrens negative emotional reacvitity at the second time  Childrens negative reacitivy was related to dysregulated behavior and agentic behavior (children caused more yelling and trouble and they made more efforts to intervene in parents conflict) kids agentic behavior predicted decreased parental discord at the third time point  Impact of baby on the couple system: most immediate effect, leads to more traditional division of labor an less marital satisfaction, satisfaction is markedly more declined in women dads satisfaction decreases but more slowly  If either the child or couple have problems = effect can be bad  Couple with satisfied relation= deal with pressures of this life transition presence of child may be enough to undermine a fragile couples relationship  Green Box: Transition to Parent Hood: to make the transition less stressful, psycholoists have made programs to strengthen couple relationships and reduce the adverse consequences of the transition to parenthood  fathers in the intervention group were more involved and satisfied wth their parenting and reported less negative change in their marital satisfaction, sexual support and social support  Moms were more satisfied in internvention group with division of labor and with marriages overall they were happier with their sexual relations and had better ability to balance life stresses and social supports  Few differences in parenting styles and childrens behavior was seen= conclusion= to sustain good fam function, giving booster shots from time to time over the fam life cycle would be helpful o The parent child system: Parents socialize children and it becomes more deliberate as kids achieve greater mobility and begin to use language o Parents effort to socialize kids increase as kids go through preschool years and are maintained until parents are satisfied with the result or give up in frustration most parents ry to socialize kids to be polite, get along with others, value honesty and hard workl, and achieve goals that vary from fam to fam o They use reinforcement when they explain acceptable standards of behavior and use praise and punishment when needed also use modeling when they want kids to adopt a behavior and also inadvertently use modeling when they act in ways they don’t intend the child to imitate o Parents differ in the way they go about socioalization differences related to their emotional involvement, parents level of control (too little control= extrnanalizing behavior problems, too much control= kids view themselves as unworthy and helpless and gives parents less time to socialize with them) o Key aspect of strict control= physical punishment and is linked to a variety of negative outcomes, especially in kids aggression o Different types of punishment= 1) conditional spanking (used to back up milder disciplinary tactics like reasoning and time outs, 2)physical punishment( predominant tactic) 3 )severe punishment shaking, and spanking that was anger driven and out of control o Only latter 2 types of punishment are associated with negative chuld outcomes like antiscoail behavior an poor conscience development o Conditional spanking= associated with decrease in noncompliance and antisocial behavior even more than nonphysical disciplinary tactics such as ignoring, time outs, etc o Mild, judicious physical punishment can be an effective disciplinary strategy  Different parenting styles exist  Authoritarian parenting= harsh, unresponsive and rigid and tends to use power assertive methods of controlconflict irritable kids  Permissive parenting= lax and inconsistent and encourages kids to express their impulses freely kids= impulsive and agressive parents couldn’t diminish kids uncontrolled, noncompliant and aggressive behavior  Authoritative parenting= warm, responsive and involved and sets reasonable limits and expects appropriately mature behavior from kids high esteem, adaptability, competence and internalized control levels and were popular with peers and seldomly were antisocial  Uninvolved parenting: parents are indifferent and neglectful and focus on their own needs rather than those of other kids they do what is necessary to minimize cost of having kids and give them as little attention as possible= impulsive, aggressive, noncompliant, and moody kids and adolescents may become delinquents  Parents have different parenting styles from many sources o good marriages= authoritative parents o parents personalities less agreeable personality based parents= authoritarian and are less responsive, more rejective and power assertive o parents abilities also affect parenting styles: poor at talking and taking other persons perspective= authoritarian, with good adaption skills to changing stressful circumstances= authoritarian o medical health: neurotic parents= parents who are depressed, anxious and obsessive= are more negative and rejecting with their kids o uninvolved parenting style= found in depressed ppl o education: less education= more authoritarian o ethnic origin of family o circumstances of family life= live in dangerous place= authoritarian o parents culturesource of ideas about how to soxialize kids o childs b o children’s behaviors affects parenting style as well  socialization= 2 way street, a process of mutual shaping by which parents modify kids behavior and children influence the behavior of their parents o kids with difficult temperaments or behavior problems provoke coercive socializations strategies from their parents o kids with fearful temperaments are more accepted by their parents and respond to more subtle parental socialization strategies o moms are more negative and controlling with the conduct disordered boys than with normal boys whether they were their kids or not o child effects on parenting styles have also been seen in behavior genetics studies  Green box: Transmission of hostile parenting across generations: childrens temperaments may moderate both continuities in parenting across generations and effects of parenting on childrens emotional development o Young parents treated by their own parents in a hostile and angry fashion when they were in gr 9 were more likely to be hostile to their own kids a decade later o More hostile the young parents= more aggressive, disobedient, sullen and withdrawn their toddler were o Continuity of parenting was evident only when kids were above the median on negative emotional reactivity in fams in which kids had more positive temperaments, hostile parenting in the first gen didn’t predict hostile parenting in second= childrens negative emotional reacitivity stresses parents and stressed parents reach to their kids behavior with well learned beahviors form their own childhood o Highly reactive kids may not be at risk for problems if their parents own childhood experiences were not hostile and hostile parenting may not led to later conduct problems if kids are not emotionally reactive  Socialization, from bidirectional to transactional: today child development researchers recognize that socialization is bidirectional- that parent s behavior affects kids and kids affect parents but ver time kids and parents change over time in a transactional process  Mothers and fathers parenting= over time there is a shift in how much fathers participate in kids lives --> now engaged in ¾ but dads still spend less time with kids than mothers and less likely to supervise the childrens play with other peers  Studies show that dads make significant contribution to kids social behavior, independent of moms contribution  Fathers are more likelt ro be involved in play activities with their kids than mothers are  The quality of their play differs too dads play is more physically arousing and moms play is more conventional and they interact with toys and talk more  Cross cultural suggests that cultural environmental contexts as well as biological factors shape parents play patterns  Green Box: Parenting is a brain drain not a brain booster parenting is good for our brain  dramatic hormonal fluctuations that occur during pregnancy, birth and lactation may remodel the female brain, increasing the size of neurons in some regions and producing structural changes in others o Estrogen and progesterone enlarge cell bodies of neurons in hypothal= regulates basic maternal responses and increase the SA of neuronal branches in the hippocampus, which governs memory and learning o Activity in the moms brain that is needed for reinforcement and reward increases when moms nursed heir pups o In prego rats, neurons in hypo increased as pregnancy progessed o After birth, tese neurons direct the moms attention and motiviation to her offspring= make her to provide care, protection and nurture o Moms repsorductive experience also enhances spatial learning and memory i.e. virgin rats worse at finding food reward in mazes and mother rats faster at capturing prey o Oxytocin= hormone that triggers contractions for birth and milk release has impacts on hippo than improve learning and LT memory o Motherhood is associated with increase in number and complexity of glial cells in the connective tissue of the CNS that enhances learning and spatial memory o Rat moms bettr at multitasking and had less amyloid plaque deposits in moms (plays role in deterioration of the aging brain_ o Brain areas that regulate reward become activated when human moms merely gaze @ their kids o Changes in sensory regulatory system occur as well= moms better at recognizing infants odor and sounds due to advanced sensory development o mothers with high post birthelevels of cortisol were more attached and motivated by their babies scents and better able to recognize babies cries o males gain mental benefit from becoming parents fathers were quicker than non dads to investigate novels stimuli like lego blocks  The coparenting system= how parents work together as a team= can be cooperative, hostile or unbalanced o Cooperative= cohesive and child centered and fams have high degree of family harmony  positive effect on kids social emotional development and can reduce the negative effects of a problematic temperament o Hostile= parents compete against each other for kids attention and loyalty kids are more aggressive o Unbalanced: spouses invest diff amounts of time and energy in parenting = imbalance in their involvement with the kid= can result from gate keeping= when one parent limits or controls the other parent level of participation  kids develop anxiety  Sibling system: kids spend more time interacting with siblings and interactions give lots of oppurtunities for kids to learn positive and negative ways of interacting and may be more emotionally intense than exchanges with other fam members and friends  Green Box: when Is a family to large large family hard to manage at least 1 caregiver is needed for eveyr 4 infants to ensure that infants get proper care sometimes to many is too much  How are siblings affected by birth order: first born=kids are more adult oriented, helpful, and self controlled than their siblings and they tend to be more studious and conscientious sons are more conservative and like to maintain status quo because of the parents expectations and demands  Second born support more change and innovation  Later born kids also are less fearful and anxious than their firstborn siblings and they experience less guilt and have less difficulty coping with stressful situations and are less likely to be treated for psychological problems and have more self confidence and social poise  Only kids= high achievers but are sustained by their close relation with parents and are less anxious and show more personal control, maturity and leadership  First borns ore likely to have behavior and emotional problems when they get less attention when their new sibling comes to the family  If mom is still responsive to needs of older kid= sibling rivalry less likely  If fathers become more involved with older kid= counter kids feelings of displacement and jealousy positive impact of new baby= dads get more involved  Friends can sere as buffers in this potentially stressful situations too  Kids who had rewarding friendships before birth of their sibling had better relations with sibling in adolescence even having contact with other kid outside the fam= buffer when sibling is born  Siblings may be treated differently or at least c themselves to be treated differently by parents- create non shared environments within fam= diff developmental consequences for the siblings and if diffs are too big= sibling rivalry possible  Most kids see their parents differential treatment as reasonable= good  Position in the fam affects how children interact with siblings  Older ones serve as resources for younger siblings  Sisters= protective in family crisis such as divorce and older siblings also serve as teachers for their younger ones  Whereas older siblings look at parents as their mai
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