Chapter 7: Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy History of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy and its Variations In Freuds time, hysteria was typically treated with hypnosis or institutionalization in sanatoriums. Freuds daughter Anna sought a career as a psychoanalyst and became an influential figure in the psychoanalytic movement and pioneering innovator of child analysis techniques. Carl Jung created a theory of archetypes that emphasized the collective unconscious. The collective unconscious refers to memories that are carried from one generation to another. Key Figures and Variations of Psychoanalysis Sullivan believed that interpersonal relationships are the foundation of personality and psychopathology. Kohut developed a theory of the self that has particular application from those suffering from narcissistic disorders or disorders of the self. Klein developed the concept of projective identification and explored the area of primitive emotional states that she identified as consisted of two primary positions: (1) depressive (2) paranoid schizoid To understand projective identification, a person must first understand the concept of projection which is the process in which thoughts and feelings outside of awareness are projected onto someone else. Projective identification goes a step farther where the projection is received and accepted by the other member. Most Popular Currently Practiced Psychoanalytic Variants In structuraldrive theory, the psychodynamic psychotherapist conceptualizes symptoms as manifestations of unconscious drives and conflicts among intrapsychic agencies. Ego psychology added substantially to structuraldrive theory by emphasizing the concept of defenses and how they are utilized. These traumata result in either structural problems that indicate problems with internal regulatory systems or developmental deficits that are related to poorly organized integration in internal structural domains. Nine individual mechanisms of defense: (1) Regression is the return to an earlier level of functioning to avoid anxiety and tension.