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Chapter 9

Chapter 9

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC37H3
Professor
Bouffard

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Chapter 9: Theories of Intelligence and the Binet Scales THE PROBLEM of DEFINING INTELLIGENCE Alfred Binet, one of the original authors of the test that bears his name, defined intelligence as the tendency to take and maintain a definite direction; the capacity to make adaptations for the purpose of attaining a desired end, and the power of autocriticism Spearman, defined intelligence as the ability to educe either relations or correlates T.R. Taylor identified three independent research traditions that have been employed to study the nature of human intelligence: the psychometric, the information-processing, and the cognitive approaches The psychometric approach examines the elemental structure of a test. Following the psychometric approach, we examine the properties of a test through and evaluation of its correlates and underlying dimensions In the information-processing approach, we examine the processes that underlie how we learn and solve problems The cognitive tradition focuses on how humans adapt to real-world demands There is a correlation between socioeconomic background and scores on all standardized intelligence test, including Stanford-Binet. Thus, many people have charged that intelligence tests are biased, especially against ethnic minorities and the poor Intelligence tests were initially developed to eliminate subjectivity in the evaluation of childrens ability and it should be noted that among standardized tests, the Stanford-Binet fifth edition is among the best in providing appropriate cautions for test users In 1904, the French minister officially appointed a commission, to which he gave a definite assignment: to recommend a procedure for identifying so called subnormal (intellectually limited) children BINETS PRINCIPLES OF TEST CONSTRUCTION Binet defined intelligence as the capacity (1) to find and maintain a definite direction or purpose, (2) to make necessary adaptations that is, strategy adjustments to achieve that purpose, and (3) to engage in self-criticism so that necessary adjustments in strategy can be made Binet believed that intelligence expressed itself through the judgmental, attentional, and reasoning facilities of the individual, he decided to concentrate on finding tasks related to these three facilities In developing tasks to measure judgment, attention, and reasoning, Binet used trial and error as well as experimentation and hypothesis-testing procedures He was guided by two major concepts that to this day underlie not only the Binet scale but also major modern theories of intelligence: age differentiation and general mental ability These principles provided the foundation for subsequent generations of human ability tests Principle 1: Age Differentiation Age differentiation refers to the simple fact that one can differentiate older children from younger children by the formers greater capabilities Binet eventually assembled a set of tasks that an increasing proportion of children could complete as a function of increases in age Using these tasks, he could estimate the mental ability of a child in terms of hisher completion of the tasks designed for the average child of a particular age, regardless of the childs actual or chronological age A particular 5-year0old child might be able to complete tasks that the average 8-year-old could complete With the principle of age differentiation, one could determine the equivalent age capabilities of a child independent of hisher chronological age www.notesolution.com
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