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Chapter 13

Chapter 13

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Chapter 13: Applications in Clinical and Counselling Settings Personality characteristics: nonintellective aspects of human behaviour, typically distinguished from mental abilities Personality: relatively stable and distinctive patterns of behaviour that characterize individual and their reaction to environment Personality traits: relatively enduring dispositions- tendencies to act, think, or feel in certain manner in any given circumstance that distinguish one person from another Personality types: general descriptions of people Personality status: emotional reactions that vary from one situation to another Self-concept: persons self-definition, organized and relatively consistent set of assumptions that person has about self Development of Personality Testing Initial attempts to measure personality first emerged at the turn of the 20th century Theory-driven, not empirically derived, pyschometric properties (e.g., reliability, validity) were not established World War I ushered along the evolution of personality tests importance of predicting adjustment of new recruits to the military based on single dimensions of personality and behavior Within 2 decades following WWI, tests evolved to measure multiple dimensions of personality During the 1930s and 1940s personality testing evolved further and diverged along two measurement methodologies o Projective tests o theory-driven Designed to probe deeper dimensions of personality Disadvantage of Personality Tests Social Desirability Faking Good Faking Bad Random Responding Two Main Personality Theories 1. Trait theory: people differ based on stable attributes (called traits) characteristics lie on a continuum e.g., the Big Five 2. Type theory: people can be sorted into categories (either one type or the other) There are many different personality inventories that measure traits or types Development of Personality Testing Empirically derived tests (Objective Measures) o measures designed using factor-analysis o measures created around pre-determined criteria (criterion-referenced) Objective Personality Measures Objective measures utilize highly structured response formats Consist of unambiguous stimulus items o Forced choice (e.g., truefalse) o Likert scale ratings Result in a quantitative score that can be compared with normative score data www.notesolution.com
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